A T Still University Study Design Group Discussion

Examine each of the articles you used for your annotated bibliography earlier in the course. Create a table that shows the study design, data types, sampling, methodology, and variables for each article/study. Be sure to attach copies of your articles/studies to your post. Conclude your table with a row that identifies the study design, data types, sampling, methodology, and variables that could be used in your proposed research study.

Missing page number on the first page
Malnutrition Among Children
Yetunde Adaramola
A.T. Still University
Dr Marsha Presley
Malnutrition is an international issue that affects both developed and developing
countries. Malnutrition is regarded as the leading cause of death among children below 15 years.
Malnutrition cases are high in rural areas where there is economic scarcity. Majority of
homesteads with cases of malnutrition have more than five children. The children’s needs
become hard to meet, resulting in a poor diet. Some go for days without food, especially during
the drought crisis. Undernourishment is likely to affect brain development as well as body size.
In most cases, hungry and undernourished students perform poorly in exams compared to healthy
students. This is because the body and brain are energy-deprived and cannot visualize what is
being taught in class. Therefore, the students end up lagging. Similarly, the victims have a low
immune system, which makes them susceptible to infections. Also, when they get sick, they take
a longer time to recuperate compared to healthy patients. This analysis explains why there are
several morbidity cases, as well as mobility due to undernourishment. This paper focuses on
malnourishment among school-going children.
Malnutrition Among Children
Several initiatives by governments and well-wishers have been put in place to combat
cases of malnourishment. However, the number of deaths related to undernourishment is
increasing daily. Hagström, Florén, & Rosengarten (2019), researched malnourishment cases in a
Family-Centered Care unit in Vietnam. The study’s purpose was to analyze the experience of
medical students on malnourished children in Vietnam and the disease prevalence among
vulnerable individuals. The research study focused on vulnerable children under care of their
parents and nurses in Vietnam. Some of the children in the hospital under FCC had growth
disorders, were underweight, and had diabetes. Some of the diseases require a lot of capital to
maintain. Therefore, parents neglect the children’s diet and buy medicine instead. This dilemma
is the reason behind high cases of malnutrition in Vietnam (Hagström et al., 2019). The study
shows the relationship between nutrition and growth disorders.
Guinea is an African country that is categorized in developing countries. Several cases of
drought and famine reported in Guinea exacerbate the scarce resources to feed the nation,
especially, the rural areas. Conakry in Guinea has high cases of malnutrition among school going
kids, mainly primary leaners. Studies conducted by Homer indicated that 89% of children in
West Guinea could not afford three meals a day. Also, their diet mostly is comprised of
carbohydrates and lacked vitamins. Vitamins boost the immune system; therefore, the children
are highly prone to diseases due to a weaker defense mechanism (Abdoulaye et al., 2018). The
study group used a cross-sectional study carried out from November 5th, 2015 to April 4th,
2016, among grade five learners to determine malnutrition prevalence among school kids in
Conakry. The study subjects were learners aged 6-19 years. They were randomly designated in
two phases approach. Data on the feeding habits of the learners and their families were recorded.
Z-scores and body-mass index (BMI) were used to analyze the data. The result indicated that
65% of children suffered from chronic malnutrition while 30% had acute malnutrition
(Abdoulaye et al., 2018). Therefore, essential measures need to be taken to curb hunger in young
Ethiopia is a developing African country with numerous cases of poverty. A high number
of the population is thus affected by poor health and inadequate food supplies. Children ranging
between 0-60 months are the most affected. According to Endris, Asefa, & Dube (2017),
malnutrition has caused many deaths among young children below five years in the majority of
the developing countries. Ethiopia is also affected and tops the list in Sub-Saharan Africa. The
study conducted aimed at determining the number of underweight and children who had stunted
growth among country-side kids. The results indicate that rural areas are most prone and record
28% of underweight and 43% of stunted children. They were comparing the analysis to
William’s study in urban areas, whereby there are 14% cases of underweight and 25% of
overweight children (Endris, 2017). The study design involved a survey of the entire country,
Ethiopia, by the Ministry of Health and the country’s statistics agency. Therefore, cases of
malnutrition were rampant among children in rural areas. Maternal education, as well as wealth
status, is connected to the children’s nutritional status in Ethiopia.. Therefore, the Ministry of
Health and the government of Ethiopia need to improve the rural areas to mitigate poverty that is
resulting in malnourishment.
There is also a concern about the health of people living as internally displaced persons
(IDP)s in foreign countries. The host countries may provide them with necessary foodstuffs, but
some neglect their health and that of their children leading to malnourishment. A study was
conducted by Jelle et al. (2017), to determine whether cash transfer initiatives in Mogadishu
refugee camp decrease malnutrition cases and associated risk factors. The researchers
investigated malnutrition in emergency-affected communities. The households were sampled
randomly and allocated resources evenly. Each study subject was given $100 per month with no
conditions for three months. The data was collected through the surveillance method majoring in
young children. For the duration of the three months, six deaths were recorded. The cause of
death was malnutrition. They concluded that hunger is the crucial cause of mortality, as well as
chronic infections. Non-government organizations (NGOs) have been helping emergency victims
with money to buy food since it is easy to distribute. But the mortality rate keeps skyrocketing.
This outcome is because the IDPs prefer to buy cheap food and save the rest of the cash to buy
clothes and household items. This dilemma has contributed to poor health among Mogadishu
residents. Therefore, the government needs to supply food to the IDPs instead of cash.
Children who have cerebral palsy have a higher risk of being malnourished compared to
healthy children. Cerebral palsy is a brain disorder that results in numerous physical ailments,
including weak bones that do not support movement and body posture. Others include the
inability to speak, poor vision, as well as retarded growth. The kids have low immunity, which
increases the risks of contracting diseases. According to Johnson et al. (2017), children who have
cerebral palsy have higher chances of experiencing malnutrition. The researchers collaborated
with medical officers at a tertiary health center in Botswana. The study design involved a casecontrol analysis of cerebral palsy children in a healthcare center in Botswana. The malnourished
children who have cerebral palsy were compared with their counterparts who were not
malnourished. The results were used to come up with a risk score which identified the kids at
risk of malnutrition. Out of the 60 children who had cerebral palsy, 45 were malnourished
(Johnson et al., 2017). The results indicate that the disease contributes to malnourishment in
young kids. Therefore, kids with cerebral palsy have high chances of being malnourished. Thus,
the parents should pay more attention to their health and nutrition. If their weak bodies become
malnourished, then there will be higher chances of death. Also, they may become chronic to
some infections, which may deteriorate their condition. Therefore, children who have cerebral
palsy should always be provided a balanced diet and undergo occasional medical check-ups.
Malnutrition results from the consumption of inadequate food, as well as low-quality
meals. In most cases, starvation begins at the onset of weaning. If the kid is not given adequate
breast milk and weaning is done without proteins and vitamins, then the baby will become
malnourished. Rural areas are the most affected regions in all countries due to scarcity of
resources. Also, IDPs do not have access to healthy food, a condition that has influenced several
families in a Mogadishu camp leading to immature deaths. Therefore, the government should
improve resourced for rural areas and refugee camps to improve the residents’ health and combat
Several studies have been conducted to analyze the cases of malnutrition across different
countries. Surveys have been done, meetings with health practitioners and government officials
have been involved in combating malnutrition among children. However, recent research
indicates that more systematic analysis is required in the study of malnourishment. More
research in the field will help the future generations to handle nutrition in children. Recent
studies have conducted a lot of reviews but have not come up with a solution to end hunger
among rural households. The main aim of past studies was to fulfill academic purposes.
However, if systematic research is conducted and a definitive solution made, then the
communities will be enlightened on ways to cope with children weaning. Therefore, a systematic
study will seal the research gap.
Abdoulaye, T., Olivier, K. K. J. J., Alioune, C., Sidikiba, S., Alexandre, D., Emmanuel, K. Y., …
& Nagham, K. (2018). Prevalence and determinants of malnutrition among
schoolchildren in primary schools in the communes of Dixinn, Matam and Matoto,
Conakry, Guinea, 2016. Central African Journal of Public Health, 4(2), 38-47.
Endris, N., Asefa, H., & Dube, L. (2017). Prevalence of malnutrition and associated factors
among children in rural Ethiopia. Biomed Research International, 2017. Article 6587853.
Hagström, A., Florén, H., & Rosengren, K. (2019). Family-centered care-A tool to decrease
malnutrition among children in Vietnam. International Archives of Nursing and Health
Care, 5, 116. https://doi.org/10.23937/2469-5823/1510116
Jelle, M., Grijalva-Eternod, C. S., Haghparast-Bidgoli, H., King, S., Cox, C. L., Skordis-Worrall,
J., … & Seal, A. J. (2017). The REFANI-S study protocol: a non-randomized cluster
controlled trial to assess the role of an unconditional cash transfer, a non-food item kit,
and free piped water in reducing the risk of acute malnutrition among children aged 6–59
months living in camps for internally displaced persons in the Afgooye corridor,
Somalia. BMC Public Health, 17(1), 632. https://doi.org/ 10.1186/s12889-017-4550-y
Johnson, A., Gambrah-Sampaney, C., Khurana, E., Baier, J., Baranov, E., Monokwane, B., &
Bearden, D. R. (2017). Risk factors for malnutrition among children with cerebral palsy
in Botswana. Pediatric Neurology, 70, 50-55.
Overall, good work on the literature review. I am impressed, considering how exhausted you probably were. I hope
that mother and child (son or daughter?) are continuing to thrive and that you are getting some time for self-care.
The points off are primarily for formatting issues delineated below. Before I do that, may I ask a favor? I will have
to review 55 academic papers each week for the next 4 weeks. The article doi usually provides me with a quick way
to get to the articles. If I have to look up how to find each article each week, then that adds more time which adds
up. Please include the doi for each article – see above. Thank you.
Formatting issues:
The running head requires a page number on the cover page as well as the other pages.
Level 1 headers should be bold, centered, and have title-style capitalization. See
In APA format, the paper should be double-spaced throughout, without extra space between paragraphs,
or between headers and the text. See https://support.office.com/en-us/article/change-spacing-betweenparagraphs-ee4c7016-7cb8-405e-90a1-6601e657f3ce for guidance on removing the extra space.
When using acronyms, the full words must be written out the first time, with the acronym in parentheses.
Please see my edits above.
For journal articles, the proper APA format is:
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical,
volume number(issue number), pages. https://doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyy
Note that the article title uses sentence-style capitalization, whereas the journal title uses title-style
While you use a clever way to force a hanging indent, here is a resource that will help you set it up more
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