Adult Vocational Services Laryngoscope as a Murder Weapon Summary

Please read this one carefully and listen to the following audio file and then write a short summary setting forth the important points you found in it and what your “take-home” information will be.

The Journal of Emergency Medicine, Vol. xx, No. x, pp. xxx, 2010
Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved
0736-4679/10 $–see front matter
doi:10.1016/j.jemer med.2010.02.014
Tech n i q u es
an d Pr o ced u r es
Scott D. Weingart, MD
Division of Emergency Critical Care, Department of Emergency Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York
Corresponding Address: Scott D. Weingart, MD, Division of Emergency Critical Care, Department of Emergency Medicine, Mount Sinai
School of Medicine, 7901 Broadway, Elmhurst, NY 11373
e Abstr act—Backgr ound: The goal of pr eoxygenation is to
pr ovide us with a safe buffer of time befor e desatur ation
dur ing Emer gency Depar tment intubation. For many intubations, the application of an oxygen mask is sufficient to
pr ovide us with ample time to safely intubate our patients.
However , some patients ar e unable to achieve adequate
satur ations by conventional means and ar e at high r isk for
immediate desatur ation dur ing apnea and lar yngoscopy.
For these patients, mor e advanced methods to achieve
pr eoxygenation and pr event desatur ation ar e vital. Discussion: We will r eview the physiology of hypoxemia and the
means to cor r ect it befor e intubation. Next, we will discuss
apneic oxygenation as a means to blunt desatur ation and
the optimal way to r eoxygenate a patient if desatur ation
does occur . Last, we will discuss the new concept of delayed
sequence intubation, a technique to be used when the
discomfor t and delir ium of hypoxia and hyper capnia
pr events patient toler ance of conventional pr eoxygenation. Conclusions: These new concepts in pr eoxygenation and r eoxygenation may allow safer air way management of the high-r isk patient. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.
ways. However, in a subset of patients, these techniques
will lead to inadequate preoxygenation and fail to prevent desaturation. To safely intubate this group, an understanding of the physiology of oxygenation is essential to allow for optimal intubating conditions. This
knowledge can then be applied at the bedside in the
care of high-risk patients. The goal of this work is to
translate the tenets of physiology and the most recent
literature to allow the safest possible intubation of
critically ill patients.
The Pathophysiology of Hypoxemia
To understand oxygenation, it is essential to understand
the causes of hypoxemia. These causes are inadequate
alveolar oxygenation (low environmental oxygen pressure or alveolar hypoventilation), diffusion abnormalities, dead space (high ventilation, low perfusion [V/Q]
mismatch), low V/Q mismatch, shunt, and low venous
blood saturation. In the Emergency Department (ED)
patient placed on
0.4 fraction-inspired oxygen
(fiO2), all of these problems have inconsequential effects on oxygenation except shunt and low venous
blood saturation. See Figure 1 for an explanation of
these two phenomena.
An anatomical shunt is a direct connection between
the arterial and venous blood flow, for example, a
e Keywor ds—intubation; air way management; mechanical ventilation; pr eoxygenation; ventilation; oxygenation;
r apid sequence intubation
Conventional preoxygenation techniques provide safe
intubation conditions for a majority of emergency air-
RECEIVED: 20 August 2009; FINAL SUBMISSION RECEIVED: 26 November 2009;
ACCEPTED: 17 February 2010
S. D. Weingart
Figure 1. Ventilation/perfusion units. In the normal lung, oxygen enters the alveoli and raises the saturation from the venous
level of 70% to 100% by the time it reaches the arterial side. In shunt, no oxygen can get in to the alveoli, so the venous
saturation is never increased. In low SvO2 situations, the alveoli are not able to raise the low venous saturation to the normal
arterial level. When these two problems are both present, the arterial desaturation becomes even worse.
septal defect in the heart. When we speak about shunt
as the cause of hypoxemia, we are rarely referring to
anatomical shunts. Physiologic shunt is the major
cause of poor oxygenation in ill ED patients already on
supplemental oxygen. A physiologic shunt is caused by
areas of alveoli that are blocked from conducting
oxygen, but still have intact blood vessels surrounding
them. This perfusion without any ventilation leads to a
direct mixing of deoxygenated venous blood into the
arterial blood. Causes of shunt include pneumonia,
atelectasis, pulmonary edema, mucus plugging, and
adult respiratory distress syndrome. No matter how
high the fiO2, these areas will never have an improved
oxygenation because inhaled gas never reaches the
blood. The only way to improve oxygenation in these
areas of the lungs is to fix the shunt.
Low venous oxygen saturation is also an important
cause of hypoxemia in the ED. Venous blood is never
fully desaturated when it reaches the lungs. In normal
patients, the hemoglobin reaching the lungs has a
saturation of
65–70%, therefore, only a small
amount of exposure to oxygen can rapidly bring the
saturation to 100%. In shock states, the venous blood
will arrive at the lungs with lower saturations due to
greater tissue extraction. This venous blood will require more exposure to oxygen to reach a saturation of
100%; in injured lungs this may not occur. This problem becomes much more deleterious when combined
with physiologic shunt. In this combination, the al-
ready abnormally low saturation venous blood mixes
directly into the arterial supply.
This should impel the practitioner to always consider
the circulatory system when evaluating the patient’s respiratory status. If the patient about to be intubated is in
shock, attempts to improve and prevent the reduction of
cardiac output become methods to improve oxygenation. Tailoring sedative medications to the patient’s
cardiac status and blood volume is critical (1,2). If
time allows, these patients will also benefit from aggressive preintubation normalization of preload, afterload, and inotropy (3,4).
Standard ED Preoxygenation
The standard recommended technique for ED preoxygenation is tidal volume breathing of oxygen from a high
fiO2 source for at least 3 min or eight vital capacity
breaths (5). When possible, a maximal exhalation preceding the tidal volume breathing improves preoxygenation (6,7). The non-rebreather mask (NRB), though the
routine oxygen source, provides only 65– 80% of fiO2
(8). In a healthy non-obese adult patient, these standard
techniques have been shown to provide a buffer as long
as 8 min before the saturation drops below the critical
90% threshold (9). In the ill patient with injured lungs,
abnormal body habitus, or upregulated metabolism, this
time is significantly shortened (9). In some cases it is
impossible to obtain a saturation
90% before the
Preoxygenation, Reoxygenation, and Delayed Sequence Intubation in the ED
intubation attempt, regardless of the duration of standard
A patient with a saturation 95% on a nasal cannula set
to 6 L/min of oxygen is exhibiting at least some degree of
shunting, as this setting will provide 0.4 fiO2 (8). If the
saturation is
95% on a NRB, the patient is exhibiting
signs of moderate to severe shunting. These latter patients
are at risk for a precipitous and dramatic decline in oxygen
saturation during the intubation procedure.
We have seen many situations in which a patient
preintubation is saturating 90% even with a NRB; the
providers become frustrated, abandon further attempts at
preoxygenation, and proceed to the immediate intubation
of the patient to improve the saturation. However, if the
patient is saturating 90% before rapid sequence intubation (RSI), they may have an immediate and profound
desaturation almost immediately after the RSI drugs are
administered. Figure 2 shows the oxygen-hemoglobin
dissociation (saturation) curve. The patient in this circumstance is already on the steep portion of this curve
and will shortly be at critically low pressures of oxygen.
This abandonment of preoxygenation and rush to premature intubation may be predicated on the fallacy that
saturation declines in a linear fashion over time. The
shape of the curve in Figure 2 demonstrates that the time
to go from 100% to 90% is dramatically longer than the
time it takes to go from 90% to injuriously low levels of
oxygen pressure resulting in dysrhythmia, seizure, and
cardiac arrest.
In this circumstance of low saturation before RSI,
many airway experts recommend preoxygenation with a
bag/valve/mask device (BVM). When the BVM is manufactured with an appropriate exhalation port and a tight
mask seal is obtained, it can deliver
0.9 fiO2 both
when the patient spontaneously breathes and with assisted ventilations (10). However, this increase from a
fiO2 of 0.7 (NRB) to 0.9 (BVM) will do nothing to
ameliorate shunt and little to correct low V/Q mismatched alveoli. In addition, it requires a practitioner to
maintain an ideal mask seal during the stressful moments
of preparing for RSI. If the mask seal is inadequate, room
air will be entrained.
Preoxygenation in High-risk Patients
Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has become a mainstay
in the management of respiratory emergencies in most
EDs. NIV is also the optimal technique for preoxygenation of high-risk patients. With a properly fitted, fullface NIV mask, fiO2 of
1.0 is assured, and because
these masks strap around the patient’s head, no practitioner is needed to maintain the mask seal. With a setting
of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) at 0 cm
H2O, this NIV set-up will simply provide a source of
nearly 100% oxygen. With increased CPAP settings,
shunt can actually be treated and the patient’s oxygenation significantly improved (11–15).
Starting with a CPAP setting of 5 and titrating up to
a maximum of 15 cm H2O, 100% saturation can be
achieved in patients in whom NRB or BVM preoxygenation did not result in adequate saturations. This strategy
requires the NIV machine or, preferably, a standard
ventilator standing by in the ED. Unless the ED is
consistently staffed with an in-department respiratory
therapist, it is also necessary for the clinicians to know
how to immediately set up and apply NIV themselves.
In EDs where neither a ventilator nor a NIV machine
is available, the patient can be preoxygenated by spontaneously breathing through a BVM with a positive endexpiratory pressure (PEEP) valve attached. This is suboptimal, as a provider must hold the mask tightly over
the patient’s face and even a slight break in the mask seal
eliminates the PEEP. PEEP valves will be discussed in
more detail below.
Oxygenation during the Apneic Period
Figure 2. Oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve. The shape of
the curve demonstrates that at 90% saturation, the patient is
at risk of critically low oxygen levels (< 40 mm Hg PaO2) if even a brief period of time elapses without reoxygenation. Patients will take a much longer time to desaturate from 100% to 90% than to go from 90% to 70%. In standard RSI, the oxygen mask is left on the patient’s face until the time of intubation. However, nothing is done to maintain a patent connection between the mouth and the glottis. As the sedative and paralytic drugs take effect, the tongue and the posterior pharyngeal tissues can occlude the passageway of oxygen to the glottis. ARTICLE IN PRESS 4 S. D. Weingart Although this seems irrelevant as the patient is no longer breathing, it ignores the benefits of apneic oxygenation. Apneic Oxygenation In an experiment by Frumin et al., patients were preoxygenated, intubated, paralyzed, and placed on an anesthesia machine that provided 1.0 fiO2 and no ventilations (16). These patients were maintained in this apneic state for between 18 and 55 min. None of these patients desaturated below 98%, despite being paralyzed and receiving no breaths. Although their CO2 levels rose, their oxygenation was maintained due to apneic oxygenation. Oxygen was absorbed from the patients’ alveoli by pulmonary blood flow; this established a gradient for the continued pull of oxygen from the endotracheal tube and anesthesia circuit. In another study, Teller et al. showed that pharyngeal insufflation with oxygen significantly extended the time to desaturation during apnea (17). Numerous studies on apneic oxygenation during brain death testing confirm that even without any respiratory effort, oxygen saturation can be maintained (18 –20). If a continuous path of oxygen is maintained from the pharynx to the glottis during the apneic period of RSI, the patient will continue to oxygenate. This has led us to perform a jaw thrust in all high-risk patients during their apneic period. In some cases, we also place nasopharyngeal airways to augment the passage of oxygen. These techniques, combined with high-flow O2 from a NRB mask, NIV mask, or the facemask of a BVM, will allow continued apneic oxygenation. Another problem during the apneic period is absorption atelectasis due to alveoli filled with near 100% oxygen. The nitrogen in normally ventilated alveoli serves to maintain their patency. When we preoxygenate with high fiO2, our goal is to completely wash out this nitrogen. This can lead to alveolar collapse as the oxygen is taken up by pulmonary blood; further shunt is the result (21). The use of NIV ventilation with CPAP can maintain these alveoli in an open state during the apneic period. When NIV is combined with a jaw thrust and patent oro/nasopharyngeal passage of air, the potential benefits of apneic oxygenation can be fully realized. airway and, if there is any difficulty, nasopharyngeal airways as well. Even in skilled hands, this method can be problematic; when performed by a novice, it can be deadly. Every BVM breath during reoxygenation potentially puts the patient at risk for gastric insufflation and aspiration. Ideally, the patient would receive the minimum number of ventilations to achieve reoxygenation and these breaths would be delivered in a slow, gentle manner to avoid overcoming the lower esophageal sphincter opening pressure of 20 –25 cm H2O (22). However, studies show the difficulty of maintaining these goals during the stressful environment of an emergency resuscitation (23,24). In addition to changes in time perception when stressed, another possible explanation for this is a misunderstanding of the effects of increased ventilations on oxygen saturation. Ventilating the patient at increased respiratory rates will not raise the oxygen saturation any faster than at a controlled rate. In Figure 3, the effects of alveolar ventilation on oxygenation can be appreciated. At a fiO2 of 0.5, only 500 mL/min of ventilation must reach the alveoli to generate a high PaO2. At a fiO2 of 1.0, even less alveolar ventilation must occur to yield a 500 mm Hg. Even assuming a high fraction of PaO2 dead space in a patient undergoing resuscitation, this means that to achieve reoxygenation with the buffer of a high PaO2, only 3– 4 breaths/min are needed. Given this information, the rate of 10 breaths/min recommended by most resuscitation guidelines seems reasonable and safe, offering at least double the required number of breaths. Ten slow (1.5–2 s per breath), low tidal volume breaths REOXYGENATION If the first pass at intubation fails and the patient’s oxygen saturation drops below 90 –95%, reoxygenation is required before any further intubation attempts. The standard method for reoxygenation is to ventilate the patient with a BVM apparatus attached to high-flow O2. Skilled practitioners will also place an oropharyngeal Figure 3. Alveolar ventilation vs. alveolar oxygenation. When breathing room air, approximately 3 L must reach the alveoli to maintain a PaO2 > 100 mm Hg. If the fi O2 is increased to
0.5, only 1 L/min is needed to generate a PaO2 > 500 mm Hg.
If the fi O2 is increased beyond 0.5, even less alveolar ventilation is needed.
Preoxygenation, Reoxygenation, and Delayed Sequence Intubation in the ED
per minute would seem the optimum rate for reoxygenation. Yet, when the patient has desaturated, we often
witness rates as high as 60 –120 breaths/min.
Beyond ensuring the proper rate and timing of ventilations, ideal mask seal is also imperative or the ventilations will not reach the alveoli. During our training, we
are still taught how to correctly hold the mask of the
BVM with one hand, but this is an inferior method that
often does not achieve an adequate seal. Two providers
are needed for reliably effective BVM ventilation: one to
hold the mask with two hands and a second person to
squeeze the bag.
Standard BVMs cannot provide PEEP, which, as
we have previously discussed, is the only effective
means to treat shunt during emergent intubation. In
patients who required CPAP for preoxygenation, to
attempt to reoxygenate with zero PEEP is illogical and
often unsuccessful. PEEP valves are available that fit
on the exhalation port of most BVM devices. These
strain valves allow the generation of some PEEP by
occluding the exhalation port to a selectable extent,
but the PEEP disappears with continued gas absorption or with any loss of mask seal. Despite these
disadvantages, when no other options exist, PEEP
valves can have dramatic effects on reoxygenation.
There is, however, another commonly available solution to the problems of BVM reoxygenation: the standard
ED mechanical ventilator as a reoxygenation device.
This same ventilator can be used for the non-invasive
preoxygenation as mentioned above and therefore it is
advantageous to have at the bedside a standard ventilator
rather than a non-invasive ventilation machine for the
intubation of a high-risk patient.
The ventilator provides guaranteed slow, low tidal volume breaths. PEEP can be added and titrated to the patient’s
requirements. A single provider can hold the two-hand
mask seal while the ventilator delivers the respirations,
freeing up a practitioner. Ventilator settings for reoxygenation are shown in Figure 4. Two studies have compared handheld ventilators to BVMs for non-intubated
ventilations; these studies have shown the handheld ventilator to be safe and that it may be associated with fewer
complications (25,26). The improved valve structure and
more precise settings of a standard rather than handheld
ventilator make it even more desirable. For this strategy to
be successful, the clinicians must be able to set up the
Figure 4. The steps of non-invasive ventilation for preoxygenation, using the ventilator for reoxygenation, and delayed sequence
intubation (DSI).
S. D. Weingart
ventilator themselves without having to wait for a therapist
to be paged down to the ED.
In some circumstances, the patients who most desperately require preoxygenation impede its provision. Hypoxia and hypercapnia can lead to delirium, causing these
patients to rip off their non-rebreather or NIV masks.
This delirium, combined with the oxygen desaturation on
the monitor, often leads to precipitous attempts at intubation without adequate preoxygenation. Thanks to the
availability of novel pharmacologic agents, another pathway exists to manage these patients.
Standard RSI consists of the simultaneous administration of a sedative and a paralytic agent and the provision of no ventilations until after endotracheal intubation
(27). This sequence can be broken to allow for adequate
preoxygenation without risking gastric insufflation or
aspiration; we call this method “delayed sequence intubation” (DSI). DSI consists of the administration of
specific sedative agents, which do not blunt spontaneous
ventilations or airway reflexes; followed by a period of
preoxygenation before the administration of a paralytic
Another way to think about DSI is as a procedural
sedation, the procedure in this case being effective
preoxygenation. After the completion of this procedure,
the patient can be paralyzed and intubated. Just like in a
procedural sedation, we want the patient to be comfortable, but still spontaneously breathing and protecting
their airway.
The ideal agent for this use is ketamine. This medication will not blunt patient respirations or airway reflexes and provides a dissociative state, allowing the
application of a NRB or, preferably, NIV (28). A dose of
1–1.5 mg/kg by slow intravenous push will produce a
calmed patient within
45 s. Preoxygenation can then
proceed in a safe controlled fashion. After a saturation of
100% is achieved, the patient is allowed to breathe the
high fiO2 oxygen for an additional 2–3 min to achieve
adequate denitrogenation of the alveoli. A paralytic is
then administered and after the 45– 60-s apneic period,
the patient can be intubated.
In patients with high blood pressure or tachycardia,
the sympathomimetic effects of ketamine may be undesirable. These effects can be ameliorated with small
doses of benzodiazepine and labetalol (28). In a slowly
growing number of EDs, a preferable sedation agent
is available for hypertensive or tachycardic patients.
Dexmedetomidine is an alpha-2 agonist, which provides
sedation with no blunting of respiratory drive or airway
reflexes (29). It also will slightly lower heart rate and
blood pressure (29). Acceptable conditions can be obtained with a bolus of 1 g/kg over 10 min; if continued
sedation is necessary, a drip can be started at 0.5 g/kg/h
(30 –33). In many U.S. hospitals, this agent has not yet
moved from the operating room and intensive care unit
to the ED, mainly due to cost.
Another advantage of DSI is that frequently, after the
sedative agent is administered and the patient is placed
on non-invasive ventilation, the respiratory parameters
improve so dramatically that intubation can be avoided.
We then allow the sedative to wear off and reassess the
patient’s mental status and work of breathing. If we deem
that intubation is still necessary at this point, we can
proceed with standard RSI as the patient has already
been appropriately preoxygenated.
A video demonstrating the above concepts is available
online at:
Conventional preoxygenation techniques provide safe
intubation conditions for a majority of emergency airways. However, in a subset of high-risk patients, these
techniques will lead to inadequate preoxygenation and
fail to prevent desaturation. To safely intubate this group,
meticulous attention must be paid to optimizing preoxygenation, preventing deoxygenation and, if necessary,
providing reoxygenation in a controlled manner. Future
research is needed to delineate optimal timing, dosing,
and methods to achieve these goals.
New techniques such as NIV as a preoxygenation
technique, the ventilator as a better BVM, and breaking
the sequence of RSI using the concepts of delayed sequence intubation may make the peri-intubation period
1. Takizawa D, Takizawa E, Miyoshi S, Kawahara F, Hiraoka H. The
increase in total and unbound propofol concentrations during accidental hemorrhagic shock in patients undergoing liver transplantation. Anesth Analg 2006;103:1339 – 40.
2. Johnson KB, Egan TD, Kern SE, McJames SW, Cluff ML, Pace
NL. Influence of hemorrhagic shock followed by crystalloid resuscitation on propofol: a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic
analysis. Anesthesiology 2004;101:647–59.
3. Ezri T, Szmuk P, Warters RD, Gebhard RE, Pivalizza EG, Katz J.
Changes in onset time of rocuronium in patients pretreated with
ephedrine and esmolol—the role of cardiac output. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2003;47:1067–72.
4. Szmuk P, Ezri T, Chelly JE, Katz J. The onset time of rocuronium
is slowed by esmolol and accelerated by ephedrine. Anesth Analg
5. Pandit JJ, Duncan T, Robbins PA. Total oxygen uptake with two
maximal breathing techniques and the tidal volume breathing technique: a physiologic study of preoxygenation. Anesthesiology
2003;99:841– 6.
Preoxygenation, Reoxygenation, and Delayed Sequence Intubation in the ED
6. Baraka AS, Taha SK, El-Khatib MF, Massouh FM, Jabbour DG,
Alameddine MM. Oxygenation using tidal volume breathing after
maximal exhalation. Anesth Analg 2003;97:1533–5.
7. Nimmagadda U, Salem MR, Joseph NJ, Miko I. Efficacy of
preoxygenation using tidal volume and deep breathing techniques
with and without prior maximal exhalation. Can J Anaesth 2007;
54:448 –52.
8. Benumof J, Hagberg CA. Benumof’s airway management: principles and practice, 2nd edn. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby; 2007.
9. Benumof JL, Dagg R, Benumof R. Critical hemoglobin desaturation
will occur before return to an unparalyzed state following 1 mg/kg
intravenous succinylcholine. Anesthesiology 1997;87:979–82.
10. Nimmagadda U, Salem MR, Joseph NJ, et al. Efficacy of preoxygenation with tidal volume breathing. Comparison of breathing
systems. Anesthesiology 2000;93:693– 8.
11. Antonelli M, Conti G, Rocco M, et al. Noninvasive positivepressure ventilation vs. conventional oxygen supplementation in
hypoxemic patients undergoing diagnostic bronchoscopy. Chest
2002;121:1149 –54.
12. Baillard C, Fosse JP, Sebbane M, et al. Noninvasive ventilation
improves preoxygenation before intubation of hypoxic patients.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2006;174:171–7.
13. Delay JM, Sebbane M, Jung B, et al. The effectiveness of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation to enhance preoxygenation in
morbidly obese patients: a randomized controlled study. Anesth
Analg 2008;107:1707–13.
14. El-Khatib MF, Kanazi G, Baraka AS. Noninvasive bilevel positive
airway pressure for preoxygenation of the critically ill morbidly
obese patient. Can J Anaesth 2007;54:744 –7.
15. Lopera JL, Quintana S. Noninvasive ventilation versus nonrebreather bag-valve mask to achieve preoxygenation before intubation of hypoxic patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2006;174:
1274; author reply 1274.
16. Frumin MJ, Epstein RM, Cohen G. Apneic oxygenation in man.
Anesthesiology 1959;20:789 –98.
17. Teller LE, Alexander CM, Frumin MJ, Gross JB. Pharyngeal
insufflation of oxygen prevents arterial desaturation during apnea.
Anesthesiology 1988;69:980 –2.
18. Marks SJ, Zisfein J. Apneic oxygenation in apnea tests for brain
death. A controlled trial. Arch Neurol 1990;47:1066 – 8.
19. Wijdicks EF, Rabinstein AA, Manno EM, Atkinson JD. Pronouncing brain death: contemporary practice and safety of the apnea test.
Neurology 2008;71:1240 – 4.
20. Levesque S, Lessard MR, Nicole PC, et al. Efficacy of a T-piece
system and a continuous positive airway pressure system for apnea
testing in the diagnosis of brain death. Crit Care Med 2006;34:
2213– 6.
21. Reber A, Engberg G, Wegenius G, Hedenstierna G. Lung aeration.
The effect of pre-oxygenation and hyperoxygenation during total
intravenous anaesthesia. Anaesthesia 1996;51:733–7.
22. Lawes EG, Campbell I, Mercer D. Inflation pressure, gastric insufflation and rapid sequence induction. Br J Anaesth 1987;59:
315– 8.
23. Aufderheide TP, Sigurdsson G, Pirrallo RG, et al. Hyperventilation-induced hypotension during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
Circulation 2004;109:1960 –5.
24. O’Neill JF, Deakin CD. Do we hyperventilate cardiac arrest patients? Resuscitation 2007;73:82–5.
25. von Goedecke A, Voelckel WG, Wenzel V, et al. Mechanical
versus manual ventilation via a face mask during the induction of
anesthesia: a prospective, randomized, crossover study. Anesth
Analg 2004;98:260 –3.
26. von Goedecke A, Wenzel V, Hormann C, et al. Effects of face
mask ventilation in apneic patients with a resuscitation ventilator in
comparison with a bag-valve-mask. J Emerg Med 2006;30:63–7.
27. Walls RM, Murphy MF. Manual of emergency airway management, 3rd edn. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins;
28. Aroni F, Iacovidou N, Dontas I, Pourzitaki C, Xanthos T. Pharmacological aspects and potential new clinical applications of
ketamine: reevaluation of an old drug. J Clin Pharmacol 2009;49:
957– 64.
29. Carollo DS, Nossaman BD, Ramadhyani U. Dexmedetomidine: a
review of clinical applications. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 2008;21:
457– 61.
30. Abdelmalak B, Makary L, Hoban J, Doyle DJ. Dexmedetomidine
as sole sedative for awake intubation in management of the critical
airway. J Clin Anesth 2007;19:370 –3.
31. Bergese SD, Khabiri B, Roberts WD, Howie MB, McSweeney TD,
Gerhardt MA. Dexmedetomidine for conscious sedation in difficult
awake fiberoptic intubation cases. J Clin Anesth 2007;19:141– 4.
32. Grant SA, Breslin DS, MacLeod DB, Gleason D, Martin G.
Dexmedetomidine infusion for sedation during fiberoptic intubation: a report of three cases. J Clin Anesth 2004;16:124 – 6.
33. Cooper L, Samson R, Gallagher C, Barron M, Candiotti K.
Dexmedetomidine provides excellent sedation for elective, awake
fiberoptic intubation. Anesthesiology 2005;103:A1449.

How to place an order?

Take a few steps to place an order on our site:

  • Fill out the form and state the deadline.
  • Calculate the price of your order and pay for it with your credit card.
  • When the order is placed, we select a suitable writer to complete it based on your requirements.
  • Stay in contact with the writer and discuss vital details of research.
  • Download a preview of the research paper. Satisfied with the outcome? Press “Approve.”

Feel secure when using our service

It's important for every customer to feel safe. Thus, at HomeworkGiants, we take care of your security.

Financial security You can safely pay for your order using secure payment systems.
Personal security Any personal information about our customers is private. No other person can get access to it.
Academic security To deliver no-plagiarism samples, we use a specially-designed software to check every finished paper.
Web security This website is protected from illegal breaks. We constantly update our privacy management.

Get assistance with placing your order. Clarify any questions about our services. Contact our support team. They are available 24\7.

Still thinking about where to hire experienced authors and how to boost your grades? Place your order on our website and get help with any paper you need. We’ll meet your expectations.

Order now Get a quote