Carotenoid ConsumptionLab Four
People who eat a wide variety of foods including lots of fruit and vegetables maximize good
health. Fruits and vegetables contain plenty of vitamins and minerals that help the body
catalyze chemical reactions, spur enzymes to carry out metabolic functions, maintain proper
growth for bones, and protect the nervous and immune systems. Along with vitamins and
minerals, fruits and vegetables contain phytochemicals that help keep body cells healthy, slow
tissue degeneration, prevent the formation of carcinogens, reduce cholesterol levels, protect
the heart, maintain hormonal balance, and keep bones strong. Antioxidants are
phytochemicals found in many fruits and vegetables that neutralize the effects of free radicals
that can damage cell structures and the walls of DNA. The production of free radicals
contributes to aging, cancer, heart disease, and macular degeneration.
Brightly colored fruits and vegetables (yellow, orange, and dark green) are rich in plant
pigments called carotenoids. These plant pigments help absorb light energy for use during
photosynthesis. In the human body, carotenoids act as an antioxidant and deactivate the free
radicals—single oxygen atoms that damage the cell wall. The body can convert some
carotenoids to Vitamin A which aid human vision and normal growth and development.
Carotenoids play a role in fighting off inflammation in the body which protects the immune
system, lowers LDL oxidation in the arteries and helps prevent heart disease risk.
Most common food sources of carotenoids include carrots, yams, sweet potatoes, papaya,
watermelon, cantaloupe, mangos, spinach, kale, tomatoes, bell peppers, and oranges. People
must consume these fruits and vegetables with a fat source so the body can absorb the
carotenoids. There are over 600 types of carotenoids, but the two broad classifications of
carotenoids include carotenes and xanthophylls. Nutritionally speaking, pro-Vitamin A
carotenoids can be converted to Vitamin A in the human intestine and liver. Alpha-carotene,
beta-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin are classified as pro-Vitamin A carotenoids. Lutein,
zeaxanthin, and lycopene which are non-pro Vitamin A carotenoids are grouped with the
Kale, frozen, cooked
Winter squash, cooked
Beta Carotene (mg)
Health Benefits of Carotenoids
People who consume carotenoids in dark green vegetables may experience a plethora of health
benefits including reduced cancer risk, lower blood pressure and LDL cholesterol levels,
normalized digestive time, and enhanced macular and vision health. Carotenoids found in
orange and yellow vegetables may strengthen the immune system, promote collagen formation
and protect joint health. Red carotenoid foods help fight free radical damage which limits the
oxidation of LDL cholesterol and lowers inflammation in body. The chart below illustrates how
carotenoids benefit immune system support, heart, eye, and skin health.
Carotenoids, anti-oxidants, free radicals, phytochemical, Pro-Vitamin A carotenoid, alphacarotene, beta-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene
The Veggie Meter uses reflection spectroscopy to measure the level of carotenoid pigments in a
student’s fingertip. As a light source, the Veggie Meter uses a white LED (light emitting diode).
As a convenient tissue site, the left or right index finger is used for measurement. Students will
insert the tip of the finger into the instrument’s spring loaded finger contact module, “finger
cradle”, located at the top at the front to a) place the pad of the fingertip on top of a light
delivering and collecting contact lens, and b) to gently pressure the finger so that blood is
temporarily pushed away from the measured skin site.
A laptop computer is plugged into the Veggie Meter and analyzes the light that is reflected from
the fingertip into the Veggie Meter which derives a carotenoid score using software data
analysis. Students will perform a single measurement and then conduct a multiple
measurement. In multiple measurement mode, students insert the finger and retract it three
times with five seconds in between each measurement. An average score is determined for the
The skin carotenoid score correlates with dietary uptake of fruits and vegetables. In general,
the higher the daily fruit and vegetable consumption, the higher the carotenoid score. Students
can compare their scores with the general population data. Students should use the same
index finger to measure changes in diet over time.
Due to distance learning constraints, students will forego the use of the Veggie Meter until they
return to campus. Instead, students will record daily fruit and vegetable consumption for five
days. Students will record name of fruit or vegetable, amount consumed daily, type of
carotenoid, and whether it’s a pro-vitamin A carotenoid.
1. Do you eat five—seven servings of fruits and vegetables a day? Per week? Do you eat a
plant-based diet? Please explain.
2. How do carotenoids promote good health and protect the body from cancer risk?
3. How do carotenoids fight inflammation and protect the immune system?
4. Not all carotenoids perform the same tasks. Please explain the different functions of
pro-vitamin A carotenoids and non pro-vitamin A carotenoids and their food sources.
5. How do the anti-oxidant properties of carotenoids fight free radicals damage and
protect the cardiovascular system?
Lab 3 – Submaximal Exercise Testing
Exercise Physiology HLTH 325-001
Background and Purpose
The purpose of this assessment is it provide the pretesting, testing, and post testing procedures for
conducting a submaximal graded exercise test on the cycle ergometer to develop skill in administering
this type of test (Roberts, 2019). Submaximal testing can provide estimates of maximal aerobic capacity
by considering test duration at a given workload by using the provided VO2 max formula and
graph(Figure 3). Submaximal exercise testing estimates maximal aerobic capacity through the
determination of the one or more submaximal work rates. Lastly, the use of the submaximal blood
pressure(BP), workload, heart rate(HR), relative perceived exertion(RPE), and other subjective indices
can provide valuable information regarding one’s functional response to exercise (Roberts, 2019).
The client was instructed to follow the following guidelines for the test:
Wear loose fitting, athletic clothing
Avoid eating or drinking for 3 hours before the test
Avoid alcohol, tobacco, and caffeinated foods/drinks before the test
Avoid strenuous exercise 24 hours before the test
Try to get a good night’s sleep
Inform a member or staff if you have any injuries or illness (Rochester Insititute of Health
Sciences – Health Studies, n.d.)
Stationary cycle ergometry
Find the client’s greater trochanter and adjust the bike seat so that the client’s greater
trochanter is aligned with the bike seat. Record for the bike seat height for future tests. There
should be a slight bend in the client’s knee when the pedal is at its lowest point. Adjust the bike
handles so that there is a be a slight bend at the client’s elbow when they are grasping the bike
Set metronome at 50 bpm, Subject practices pace during warm-up
Start the clock/timer.
Measure the heart rate (HR) after 2 minutes into the first work rate or stage.
Count HR for at least 10 to 15 seconds.
Measure and record the blood pressure (BP) one time during each stage;
usually after having completed the 2 -minute HR of that stage.
Ask the client for the RPE for that stage on the 6 –20 scale
Take another HR after the BP and RPE measurements, around 3 minutes into
the stage(Figure 1).
Compare minute 2 HR to minute 3 HR during each stage:
o If there is a difference of within 5 bpm, consider that work rate or stage
finished. Steady state conditions apply.
o If there is a difference of >5 bpm, continue on for another minute (i.e.,
minute 4 of that sta ge) and check HR again. Do not change to the next
stage until you have a steady -state heart rate , HR S S , (difference within 5
bpm). If you fail to have the client achieve an HR S S for a stage, then you
may have to discontinue the test and plan to test again on another day.
It has been noted that up to 10% of individuals who are tested with this
protocol are unable to obtain HR S S in a stage.
o In summary:
▪ HR S S (within 5 bpm): Go to ne xt step
▪ No HR S S (>5 bpm) achieved: Continue stage until HR S S
After completing the first stage of 150 kp·m·min – 1 compare the client’s HR S S to
the protocol sheet. Adjust resistance appropriately for the second stage based
on HR response to first stage. This is a multistage test; the client will perform
at least two stages. Refer to Figure 2 for directions on setting the appropriate
o You need to obtain HR S S from a stage (within 6 bpm).
o The test requires completion of at least two separate stages wi th HR S S at
o Consider for the test results the third minute HR as the HR S S , if it is a
steady state (for plotting or calculations) for that stage.
o These two stages must have HRs between 110 bpm and 85% of age predicted maximum heart rate (APMHR) to be used in the plotting and
calculation of VO 2 m a x .
Allow the client to cool down after the last stage of the protocol is complete.
Have the client continue to pedal at 50 rpm, and adjust the resistance down to
0.5 to 1 kp for 3 minutes of cool -down or recovery. Take the client’s HR every
minute and BP at the end of the 3 -minute active recovery period. Next, allow
him or her to sit quietly in a chair for 2 to 3 minutes to continue the recovery
process. Be sure to check the HR and BP before allowi ng them to leave the lab.
Figure 1. The figure above lists the suggested stage procedures for YMCA Submaximal Cycle Ergometer
Test. The procedure includes monitoring the client’s blood pressure, rate of perceived exertion, pulse
and work output(cadence and resistance).
Figure 2. The figure above provides the directions for setting the cadences for the YMCA Submaximal
Cycle Ergometer Test.
Once the test is completed, the heart rates should be plotted against the respective workload in the
graph provided. A straight line should be drawn through the points and extended to the subject’s
predicted max heart rate (220-age). The point where the diagonal line intersects the horizontal
predicted max heart rate line will represent the maximal working capacity.
A perpendicular line will then be drawn from this point to the base where the maximal physical
workload capacity can be read in kgm/min. This can then be used to predict a person’s maximal oxygen
Refer to the equation and graph below to determine the client’s VO2 max.
Equation 1: VO2 max (ml . kg-1 . min-1) = [(1.8 × work rate) / Body wt in kg] + 7.
Figure 3. The graph and equation above can be used to estimate the VO2 max.
Have the client place their hand that is being used to measure their HR on the bike handle while
you measure their HR. This was stabilize their wrist and make it easier for you to measure their
Have the client to place their hand that is being used to measure their BP on the shoulder or
elbow while you measure their BP. This will stabilize their arm and make it easier for you to
measure their BP
Figure 4. The figure above is the YMCA cycle ergometry data sheet. It provides the stage, time,
workload, HR, BP, and RPE for the ergometry test performed in this lab.
Figure 5. The figure above provides the graphical and equational methods used to determine the VO2
Figure 6. The figure above provides the VO2 max data as determined through graphical and equational
methods. Figures 7 and 8 provide the equations and calculations used to determine the VO2 max values.
Equation 1: VO2 max (ml . kg-1 . min-1) = [(1.8 × work rate) / Body wt in kg] + 7.
= [(1.8 × 1950 kgm/min) / 81.6 kg] + 7
= 51.12 ml . kg-1 . min-1
Equation 2: VO2 max (L/min) = [VO2 max (ml. kg-1 . min-1)* body weight in kg]/1000 mL
= (51.12 VO2 ml. kg-1 . min-1 * 81.6 kg)/1000 mL
= 4.17 L/min-1
Figure 7. In this figure Equation 1 was used to determine the client’s VO2 max(ml*kg-1*min-1), HR and
body weight. Equation 2 was used to determine the client’s VO2 max (L.min-1), given the calculated value
of VO2 from Equation 1.
Equation 3: VO2 max (ml. kg-1 . min-1) = [(VO2 max(L/min) * 1000 mL)/bodyweight in kg]
= (4.7 L/min * 1000mL)/81.6 kg
= 57.6 ml. kg-1 . min-1
Figure 8. The equation and calculation above was used to determine the client’s VO2 max (ml. kg-1 . min-1)
given VO2 max (L/min).
Equation 4: Max HR(bpm) = 220 – age
= 220 – 21
= 199 bpm
Figure 9. The equation and calculation above was used to determine the client’s max HR(bpm), given
The YMCA cycle ergometry is an effective method for providing estimates of the aerobic capacity. The
clients max O2 uptake(L/min) was determined by graphing the client’s heart rate during the first and
second stage of the ergometry test and graphing the client’s predicted maximum HR. Through this
methodology, it was estimated that the clients max O2 uptake was 4.7 L/min. The client’s max O2 uptake
in mL/(kg*min) was calculated to be 11.39 mL/(kg*min). The client’s resting HR was 72 bpm, and the
client’s resting BP was 120/79 mm Hg. The client’s ending HR was 124 bpm, and the client’s ending BP
190/76. Overall, the client proved to be in excellent physical shape, capable of circulating a large volume
of O2 through their cardiorespiratory system.
Advantages and Disadvantages
The disadvantage for testing max O2 is that many people are not accustomed to cycling. As a result,
clients may experience muscular fatigue earlier compared to running, and therefore fail to reach cardio
outputs that are as high and representative of their true cardiorespiratory fitness. An advantage of this
test is that the client is in a steadier state compared to running on a treadmill. As a result, the trainer is
able to obtain the HR and BP of the client easier and the client conserves greater energy while
performing the test.
1. Describe the HR response during exercise and recovery. Were these responses normal?
The client’s HR increased by as much as 54 bpm during exercise. The trainers mistakenly did not
record the client’s HR during the recovery stage(Figure 4). Nonetheless, it was noted that the client’s
HR gradually decreased during the 3-minute recovery stage. These were normal responses. One
should expect the client’s HR to increase during exercise because the cardiovascular system needs
to increase the amount of O2 and other nutrients delivered to the muscles and remove CO2 and
other waste products, especially during exercise that stress the oxidative metabolic system.
(Roberts, The Cardiovascular System and Its Control CH6 Slides, 2019). Also, the recovery HR was
also normal because the muscles in the body still need oxygen and need to remove waste, especially
after intense exercise.
2. Describe the systolic and diastolic BP responses during exercise and recovery. Were these responses
normal? The systolic blood pressure rapidly increased as the stages progressed and the diastolic
remained constant(Figure 4). Although the exact measurement was not recorded, it was noted that
the systolic blood pressure gradually decreased during recovery. The blood pressure responses to
exercise and recovery were normal.
3. What was the client’s highest exercise HR? How did it compare to the client’s age-predicted HRmax?
What was the client’s highest RPE value? The client’s highest exercise HR was 124 bpm, which was
75 bpm lower than the client’s age-predicted HRmax. The client’s highest RPE was 13, which was
relatively concurrent with the client’s highest exercise HR.
4. How well did the palpated exercise HR data compare to the HR monitor or ECG HR data?
The palpated exercise HR was comparable to the HR monitor. Except for one time in which there
was a difference of 13 bpm in the client’s HR, the greatest difference between the two measures
was 5 bpm. Sources of error from the palpation HR measurement are that there is a chance that the
trainer could miscount the palpations and the palpation count is over a duration that is then
multiplied to account for the course of the stage progression, while the HR monitor provides an
How close were the client’s estimated VO2max values calculated from the multistage equation and
graphing method? The client’s VO2 max levels were relatively close with a difference of 0.53 L/min.
Margins of error in these values most likely came from the estimations that had to be taken while
graphing the line of best fit of the workloads and the age-predicted maximum HR(Figure 5).
Interpret the client’s VO2max test results. Does this client need to improve his or her
cardiorespiratory fitness level? The client had a high cardiorespiratory fitness level and does not
need to improve upon their current condition in order to achieve having good cardiorespiratory
What difficulties did you encounter in measuring HR and BP during the max GXT? How can you
minimize these problems?
It was difficult to steady the client’s arm and wrist while measuring the HR and BP during the max
GXT. In order to prevent this issue while measuring BP, the trainer can have the client place their
hand on the trainer’s shoulder or elbow in order to stabilize the client’s arm. In order to prevent this
issue while measuring HR, the trainer can have the client rest their hand on the bike handle in order
to stabilize the client’s wrist
Describe the reasons that would prompt you to stop the GXT before the client voluntarily terminates
the test. General indicators for stopping the GXT before the client voluntarily terminates the test are
a drop in systolic BP of greater than 10 mmHg from the baseline despite the workload, excessive rise
in BP, shortness of breath, leg cramps, wheezing, signs of poor perfusion, failure of HR to increase
with increased exercise intensity, and failure of test equipment (Gappmaier, 2012).
Gappmaier, E. (2012). The Submaximal Clinical Exercise Tolerance Test (SXTT) to Establish Safe Exercise
Prescription Parameters for Patients with Chronic Disease and Disability. Cariopulmonary
Physical Therapy Journal, 23(2): 19-29.
Roberts, J. (2019). The Cardiovascular System and Its Control CH6 Slides. Retrieved from
Roberts, J. (2019). Week 8 Lab 3 Cario Lab. Retrieved from blackboard.american.edu:
Rochester Insititute of Health Sciences – Health Studies. (n.d.). VO2max Test Preparation Guidelines.
Retrieved from www.rit.edu: