APUS Health and Medical Effects of Strength Training for Athletes: Literature Review Presentation

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Effects of Strength Training for Athletes: Literature Review
Research Purpose and Target Population
Athletes require proper strength and body conditioning to promote coordination and
peripheral skills. Lack of adequate strength training for the athletes heightens their risk of
injuries, a decline in performance, and health-related issues. Besides, inadequate or no
strength training among athletes translates to unattained resilience, inability to endure, and
poor performance, leading to unsuccessful careers and unattained self-potential among the
athletes. The target population in this study is the athletes, and the key variable is strength
training as an influential factor in athlete power, performance, and endurance.
Rationale for the Paper Topic
Generally, this topic focuses on the primary element of athlete power, endurance, and
overall performance. Notably, strength training is a fundamental tool for ensuring the athletes
have adequate strength and body conditioning to coordinate skills and enhance their overall
performance. One of the elements inspiring the need for strength or resistance training for the
athlete entails the opportunity to build resilience and power to pursue rigorous activities.
Furthermore, pursuing this topic is essential to enhancing athlete power by strengthening
muscles and adapting to physically thorough exercise. Therefore, it is necessary to
acknowledge that strength training is a strategic tool for building professional and physically
fit athletes by enhancing their endurance. Notably, resistance or strength training cultivates a
pathway or trajectory for the trainers or coaches, experienced and aspiring athletes, to build
muscles and prepare for a transformation in athletics.
Literature Review
Athlete Power
Studies acknowledge that strength training heightens the power and strength of the
lower and upper extremities (Izquierdo et al., 2002). In the study examining the maximal
strengths of the muscles at the upper and lower extremities, Izquierdo et al. (2002) affirmed a
positive influence of the half-squats and bench press activities. Studies confirm that strength
training heightens positive physical characteristics such as high body mass and low body fat
levels. The findings of the study exploring the effects of strength training confirm that it
enhances the maximal strength and muscle power among athletes. Strength training heightens
the muscle mechanics due to the improved abilities upper and lower extremities to attain
maximal power (Izquierdo et al., 2002).
Resistance or strength training enhances muscle strength and power (Arora et al.,
2021). Arora et al. (2021) acknowledge that resistance training involving whole-body
vibration (WBV) promotes intricate muscle strength and power for the athletes to pursue
rehabilitative and prophylactic functions. Arora et al. (2021) provide consistent evidence with
the assertions by Izquierdo et al. (2002) affirming that strength training increases muscle
activity. Strength training improves electromyography (EMG), muscle strength, and power,
which are essential for athletic and heightening performance (Arora et al., 2021).
In a piece of consistent evidence with findings by Izquierdo et al. (2002) and Arora et
al. (2021) on the function of strength training on muscle power and strength, Granacher et al.
(2016) confirm the justifiable need for strength training for optimal power gain and muscle
power. Granacher et al. (2016) ascertain that resistance training, such as plyometric training
for the athletes, heighten their muscular fitness and overall performance by ensuring
neuromuscular adaptations. This study affirms that resistance training promotes muscular
strength, which is essential to boost muscular power and endurance. This training induces
muscle hypertrophy for muscular endurance, enhancing fitness due to heightening muscular
power (Granacher et al., 2016).
Resistance training is fundamental for maximal strength and power in the upper body
and essential for adaptation (Baker & Newton, 2006). An experimental study exploring the
adaptation of maximal strength in muscles and power output due to resistance training
indicates a positive relationship (Baker & Newton, 2006). Baker and Newton (2006) confirm
that long-term resistance training heightens muscle strength and power due to vast
hypertrophy, improved endurance, and muscular adaptation. The findings by Baker and
Newton (2006) reveal consistent evidence with other studies like Granacher et al. (2016),
Izquierdo et al. (2002), and Arora et al. (2021), among others, confirming the role of strength
training on muscular power, strength and adaptation.
Studies acknowledge that resistance training is practical for ensuring muscular
endurance among athletes, essential for musculature to resist or repel fatigue and heighten
performance (Granacher et al., 2016). Granacher et al. (2016) affirm that resistance training
improves the voluntary and consistent submaximal force to resist fatigue while maintaining a
high-speed movement. Strength training heightens the muscular endurance for long-period
athletics or related purposes (Granacher et al., 2016).
Complex or strength training enhances athletic performance (Granacher et al., 2016).
Resistance training or strength training among the athletes enhances muscle strength, power,
and endurance, essential for balance and stability, agility, speed, and movement coordination
(Granacher et al., 2016). Complex training improves the adaptive potential of the athletes,
which is essential to heighten their performance by ensuring sustainable fitness due to
enhanced power, strength, and endurance of the muscles (Granacher et al., 2016). These
findings match the study outcomes by Beattie et al. (2014), affirming the role of strength
training in improving muscle power and performance.
Strength training is a core element in heightening motor skills performance (Pichardo
et al., 2019). Resistance and plyometric training is associated with improvement in movement
competency and muscle strength, enhancing motor skills performance (Pichardo et al., 2019).
Besides, resistance training heightens the body power at both extremities and moderately
improves speed and overall performance (Pichardo et al., 2019). These findings match the
outcomes by Granacher et al. (2016), confirming the essence of muscular endurance in the
increased speed among the athletes under the resistance training programs.
Strength training enhances muscle power and performance, which is essential for
endurance and improved neuromuscular efficiency (Beattie et al., 2014). Options such as
squats and jump-squat affirm maximal strength, speed, and reactive strength, which are
essential for optimal performance (Beattie et al., 2014). Strength training improves economy
or the metabolic energy at a specifically given velocity, which is necessary to enhance
muscular endurance to high-intensity exercise (Beattie et al., 2014). Generally, studies
acknowledge that the muscular strength attained through strength training improves the
athlete’s ability to perform general skills in sports such as jumping, sprinting, and decreases
the risk of injury (Suchomel et al., 2016).
Resistance-power training is fundamental for enhanced neuromuscular and sportspecific performance (Karagianni et al., 2020). Karagianni et al. (2020) affirm that strength
training heightens muscular strength and power, athlete agility and speed, as central elements
of fitness in enhancing performance. These findings match the assertions by Suchomel et al.
(2016), affirming the need for muscular strength in performing general and sophisticated
sports skills, attaining personal potential, and decreasing the rates of injuries.
Strength training enhances the change-of-direction sprint (COD) performance essential
for strength and speed (Keiner et al., 2014). Keiner et al. (2014) affirm that strength training
entails the strength and speed actions improving the change-of-direction sprint among the
athletes. Suchomel et al. (2016) demonstrate that muscular strength enhances the change of
direction of activities or tasks, which is essential to promote performance and perform both
general and specific skills in sports.
Strength training is essential for strength adaptation to enhance physical tolerance and
performance and alleviate the risk of injury (Latella et al., 2020). Studies acknowledge that
strength training aims to attain or improve the athletes’ muscular features, heightening the
athlete’s strength (Latella et al., 2020). Latella et al. (2020) provide consistent evidence with
other studies, such as Baker and Newton (2006), confirming the essence of strength training
to enhance muscular endurance for heightening muscular power.
Andersen and Aagaard (2010) affirm that strength training heightens hypertrophy,
essential for athlete performance. Studies confirm that strength training enhances the ability
of the muscles to initiate fast and rapid contractions to improve performance. Andersen and
Aagaard (2010) reveal the need for strength training to maximize the athlete’s speed due to
quick and high contraction of muscles.
Strength training enhances functional performance, unattainable through recreational
activity for healthy aging (Unhjem et al., 2019). Unhjem et al. (2019) affirm that strength
training is essential for healthy aging by enhancing functional performance through improved
muscle strength on the body extremities. These findings match the study outcomes by
Andersen and Aagaard (2010), affirming the essence of strength training on increasing
muscle strength and power.
Aagaard and Andersen (2010) affirm that strength training enhances endurance
among the athletes through the attained maximal muscle strength. Studies confirm that
strength training heightens the proportion of the muscle fibers, muscle strength, and rapid
development, which is essential for neuromuscular function (Aagaard & Andersen, 2010).
Aagaard and Andersen (2010) affirm the role of resistance training in the improved
endurance capacity for effective adaptation in both the short and long term.
Resistance or strength training is a fundamental factor in muscle adaptation and
improved hypertrophy (Friedmann-Bette et al., 2009). Resistance training enhances the
maximal strength and other anabolic effects such as quadriceps CSA, ribosomal RNA
content, and mRNAs levels, which are essential for growth and regeneration (FriedmannBette et al., 2009). Friedmann-Bette et al. (2009) affirm the function of resistance training on
hypertrophy and overall adaptation, which is essential for fast movement. These findings
match the assertions by Aagaard and Andersen (2010), affirming the need for strength
training in muscle strength and tolerance to rigorous activities.
Burnie et al. (2017) affirm that strength training is integral for adapting the intermuscular coordination resulting from muscle strength changes. Studies acknowledge that the
continuous and recurrent actions by the muscle against the high loads and transferral of this
strength to sports performance heighten muscle strength and effective inter-muscular
coordination (Burnie et al., 2017). The study evidence by Burnie et al. (2017) is consistent
with other study findings confirming the essence of strength training on muscle strength,
endurance, and overall performance in athletics.
Conclusion and Suggestion for the Future Research
Conclusively, strength training is a fundamental topic, especially for athletes and
professionals or aspiring individuals in athletics. Adequate evidence confirms that strength
training heightens the athlete’s power. It improves muscle strength in the upper and lower
extremities and improves electromyography, muscular fitness, and adaptation. Additionally,
strength training improves performance by maintaining a high-speed movement, balance and
stability, agility, and ensuring sustainable fitness. Furthermore, the performance includes
improved motor skills performance, neuromuscular efficiency, improved change-of-direction
sprint, physical tolerance, hypertrophy, and functional performance. Besides, strength
training heightens muscle endurance for muscle adaptation and improves hypertrophy and
muscular coordination. However, future studies should consider comparing the effects of the
short-term training against the long-term training to identify any significant difference in the
duration of training. Future research should explore whether the element of age and gender
play have any significant differences in the effects of strength training. Additionally,
upcoming studies should examine the change in power, performance, and endurance as
athletes transition from specific stages of strength to another.
Aagaard, P., & Andersen, J. L. (2010). Effects of strength training on endurance capacity in
top-level endurance athletes. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports,
20, 39–47. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2010.01197.x
Andersen, J. L., & Aagaard, P. (2010). Effects of strength training on muscle fiber types and
size; consequences for athletes training for high-intensity sport. Scandinavian Journal
of Medicine & Science in Sports, 20(2), 32–38. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.16000838.2010.01196.x
Arora, N. K., Sharma, S., Saifi, S., Sharma, S., & Arora, I. K. (2021). Effects of combined
whole body vibration and resistance training on lower quadrants electromyographic
activity, muscle strength and power in athletes. The Foot, 49, 101844.
Baker, D. G., & Newton, R. U. (2006). Adaptations in Upper‐Body Maximal Strength and
Power Output Resulting From Long-Term Resistance Training in Experienced
Strength-Power Athletes. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 20(3),
541–546. https://doi.org/10.1519/r-16024.1
Beattie, K., Kenny, I. C., Lyons, M., & Carson, B. P. (2014). The Effect of Strength Training
on Performance in Endurance Athletes. Sports Medicine, 44(6), 845–865.
Burnie, L., Barratt, P., Davids, K., Stone, J., Worsfold, P., & Wheat, J. (2017). Coaches’
philosophies on the transfer of strength training to elite sports performance.
International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 13(5), 729–736.
Friedmann-Bette, B., Bauer, T., Kinscherf, R., Vorwald, S., Klute, K., Bischoff, D., Müller,
H., Weber, M.-A., Metz, J., Kauczor, H.-U., Bärtsch, P., & Billeter, R. (2009). Effects
of strength training with eccentric overload on muscle adaptation in male athletes.
European Journal of Applied Physiology, 108(4), 821–836.
Granacher, U., Lesinski, M., Büsch, D., Muehlbauer, T., Prieske, O., Puta, C., Gollhofer, A.,
& Behm, D. G. (2016). Effects of Resistance Training in Youth Athletes on Muscular
Fitness and Athletic Performance: A Conceptual Model for Long-Term Athlete
Development. Frontiers in Physiology, 7(164).
Izquierdo, M., Häkkinen, K., Gonzalez-Badillo, J., Ibáñez, J., & Gorostiaga, E. (2002).
Effects of long-term training specificity on maximal strength and power of the upper
and lower extremities in athletes from different sports. European Journal of Applied
Physiology, 87(3), 264–271. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-002-0628-y
Karagianni, K., Donti, O., Katsikas, C., & Bogdanis, G. C. (2020). Effects of Supplementary
Strength–Power Training on Neuromuscular Performance in Young Female Athletes.
Sports, 8(8), 104. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8080104
Keiner, M., Sander, A., Wirth, K., & Schmidtbleicher, D. (2014). Long-Term Strength
Training Effects on Change-of-Direction Sprint Performance. Journal of Strength and
Conditioning Research, 28(1), 223–231.
Latella, C., Teo, W.-P., Spathis, J., & van den Hoek, D. (2020). Long-Term Strength
Adaptation: A 15-Year Analysis of Powerlifting Athletes. Journal of Strength and
Conditioning Research, 34(9), 2412–2418.
Pichardo, A. W., Oliver, J. L., Harrison, C. B., Maulder, P. S., Lloyd, R. S., & Kandoi, R.
(2019). Effects of Combined Resistance Training and Weightlifting on Motor Skill
Performance of Adolescent Male Athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning
Research, 33(12), 3226–3235. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000003108
Suchomel, T. J., Nimphius, S., & Stone, M. H. (2016). The Importance of Muscular Strength
in Athletic Performance. Sports Medicine, 46(10), 1419–1449.
Unhjem, R., van den Hoven, L. T., Nygård, M., Hoff, J., & Wang, E. (2019). Functional
performance with age: The role of long-term strength training. Journal of Geriatric
Physical Therapy, 42(3), 115–122. https://doi.org/10.1519/jpt.0000000000000141

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