BUSI 418LEVELS OF EVIDENCE TEMPLATE
Title of Guideline:
Articles from your Literature Review
Identified in the
Article 1 Title:
What Criteria Identified the
Research in this Article as the
Level of Evidence You
Selected (Method & Design)?
Biblical Integration or
Christian World View
Article 2 Title:
Article 3 Title:
Article 4 Title:
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LEVELS OF EVIDENCE ASSIGNMENT INSTRUCTIONS
When conducting research through a literature review, as you did earlier in this class, it is
important to know how strong and reliable the evidence is in the studies reviewed. Levels of
evidence (also referred to as hierarchy of evidence) is a system of appraising the components
such as the method and design, to rate the reliability of the results of the study.
In this assignment, you will be reviewing the research in the four articles that you used in the
Literature Review Assignment to determine the level of evidence for each, as well as offering a
summary to justify the level you identified.
You are to use the Levels of Evidence Assignment Template and fill out the chart with the
appropriate information as follows:
Student Name, date of submission
Title of Guideline used in the Literature Review Assignment
For each of the 4 articles used in your Literature Review Assignment, you will include:
o Article Title
o Purpose of the study
o Results of the study
o Because each article is clearly identified in each column, you do not need to
include an in-text citation or quotation marks for the purpose and the results for
Identify the level of evidence of each study. Only use the highest level if there were two
or more methods used. Only state the level as a Roman numeral.
Explain the criteria (research method and design) that justifies why you selected the level
of evidence for each article that you did, as in the explanations of the levels below.
Include a biblical integration or Christian worldview. You are not to use the same biblical
integration that you used in the Literature Review Assignment. You must use an APAformatted citation for any Scripture you quote or paraphrase with a matching reference in
the reference list.
References, including the Bible must be in current APA formatting in alphabetical order
at the bottom of the page. The references do not have to start on a separate page in this
assignment, as it would in an APA-formatted paper.
For the purpose of this assignment, the following Levels of Evidence are to be used:
• Evidence from a systematic review (literature review) of all relevant randomized
controlled trials (RCTs) or at least three RCTs that have similar results
• A meta-analysis study
• An evidence-based clinical practice guideline based on systematic reviews (literature
reviews) of RCTs
• Evidence obtained from at least one well-designed Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT)
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• Evidence obtained from well-designed controlled trials without randomization
• A quasi-experimental design: Not true experiment designs. Descriptive research involves
collecting data to test hypotheses or answer questions concerning the current status of the
subjects of the study. Describes the variables. Lacks the element of random assignment.
Usually assigned to 2 groups without randomization or using a comparison group instead
of a control group. Quasi-experimental research involves the manipulation of an
independent variable without the random assignment of participants to conditions or
orders of conditions. Among the important types are nonequivalent group designs,
pretest-posttest, and interrupted time-series designs.
• Evidence from well-designed cross-sectional study
• A case-control study (not the same as a case study) or retrospective studies in which
people who have a specific condition or outcome are compared with people who do not.
Researchers are retrospectively relying on patient recall or medical records for their data
• A cohort study, an observational study type that prospectively follows a large group of
patients with a specific exposure or treatment and then compares outcomes with an
unaffected group. Cohort studies are observational. Longitudinal designs fall here, too.
• Evidence from systematic reviews (literature review) of descriptive studies and/or
• A meta-synthesis study
• Meta-aggregation is an approach that is increasing in popularity as a method of
qualitative synthesis designed to model the Cochrane process of systematic reviews
summarizing results of quantitative studies while being sensitive to the nature of
qualitative research and its traditions
• Evidence from a single descriptive study
• Evidence from a single qualitative study: Like interviews without intervention or focus
groups. They provide a rich data on the views or experiences of one person or more. Can
provide insights in unexplored contexts.
• Evidence from the opinion of authorities and/or reports of expert committees
Note: Your assignments will be checked for originality via the Turnitin plagiarism tool. The tool
is a starting point for instructors to check overall Academic Integrity and higher scores generally
indicate a higher probability of Academic Misconduct. The higher a score the higher the
probability that there are too high a percentage of quotations included in the narrative, and/or
there are passages that have not been properly cited.
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LITERATURE REVIEW TEMPLATE
May 23, 2022
Clinical Practice Guideline: Allergic Rhinitis
1. Clinicians should perform an AR diagnosis if a patient presents with a past diagnosis and physical evaluation related to an
allergic reaction and one or more indicators such as itchy or runny nose, sneezing, and nasal congestion.
2. Physicians should avoid habitual sinonasal imaging in individuals with indicators similar to an AR diagnosis.
3. Clinicians should warn patients against common allergens or recommend environmental controls such as avoiding pets, using
air filtration systems, and using pesticides to kill dust mites in individuals suffering from AR who have discovered allergens
related to clinical indicators.
4. Physicians should evaluate individuals with AR diagnosis and document the availability of related illnesses such as asthma,
atopic dermatitis, conjunctivitis, and others in the medical reports.
5. Clinicians should advise on intranasal steroids for individuals suffering from AR whose indicators compromise their wellbeing.
6. Health practitioners may give acupuncture or recommend clinicians who can do the same for AR patients interested in
Include the APA-formatted Reference for your chosen Guideline here:
Seidman, M. D., Gurgel, R. K., Lin, S. Y., Schwartz, S. R., Baroody, F. M., Bonner, J. R., … & Nnacheta, L. C. (2015). Clinical
practice guideline: allergic rhinitis. Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, 152(1_suppl), S1-S43:
Title: Article 1
Efficacy of Sublingual
Immunotherapy for House
Dust Mite Induced Allergic
Title: Article 2
The Impact of Allergic rhinitis
on gastrointestinal disorders
among young adults
Title: Article 3
A systematic review of the
evidence bases for vidian
Title: Article 4
Diagnoses and management of
adult cough: An Indian
Rhinitis: A Meta-Analysis of
Randomized Controlled Trials
neurectomy in managing
Association (EMA) position
Each research article supports which guideline recommendation in the list above?
The article above supports
This article reinforces the fifth The article supports the second The article reinforces guideline
guideline number 3,
guideline, tropical steroids.
number 4, chronic conditions.
Purpose of the research
To assess the effectiveness of
To evaluate the relationship
To summarize the outcomes of To boost understanding of
between AR and digestive
AR patients treated using
pathobiology in cough and its
(SLIT) in the management and diseases (DDS) and the
evolution with Cough
treatment of AR.
relationship between tropical
steroids and DDs.
Results/Findings of the research
SLIT offers notable indicator
AR is linked with DDs across
In all studies, there is a
Chronic or acute cough
relief and alleviates the
all genders, with the impact of considerable improvement in
presented in several clinical
dependence on drugs in PAR.
AR on clinical visit frequency rhinorrhea, with dry eyes
conditions can be managed.
different in specific DD
reported in nearly 25% of the
Impact of allergic rhinitis
Evidence bases for vidian
Management of adult cough
Efficacy of sublingual
immunotherapy house dust
Induced allergic rhinitis
Gastrointestinal disorders in
Managing of rhinitis
Adult cough diagnosis
Random control trial and meta- Cohort studies
Random control trials and
Psalms 103:3 refers to the one
who forgives sins and heals all
sicknesses. The quote attempts
to explain that numerous
environmental aspects affect
eventually, everyone recovers
from the effects.
Systematic literature review
How was the data collected?
Data analysis from a national
34 964 adults aged between 21 32 inclusive articles
In the book of Psalms, chapter Isaiah 53:4 declares that God
107, verse 20, God declared
has undoubtedly carried our
his word and healed the people grief and sorrow, yet we honor
while saving them from their
him. The quote explains that if
destruction. The quote means
one needs imaging to identify
that if a person takes topical
what is ailing them, they
steroids, they will recover from should go ahead and have the
whatever is ailing them.
A meta-analysis, qualitative
study, and quasi-experimental
Quality of scientific evidence
and expert opinions.
In Proverbs 17:22, a joyful
heart is the best medicine
while a destroyed spirit
destroys the bones. The quote
means that whatever condition
one is suffering from, a
positive attitude will help them
Feng, B., Xiang, H., Jin, H., Gao, J., Huang, S., Shi, Y. … & Chen, B. (2017). Efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy
for house dust mite-induced allergic rhinitis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Allergy, asthma &
immunology research, 9(3), 220-228.
Ho, S. W., Lin, C. P., & Ku, M. S. (2020). The impact of allergic rhinitis on gastrointestinal disorders among young
adults. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 26(1), 242-247.
Marshak, T., Yun, W. K., Hazout, C., Sacks, R., & Harvey, R. J. (2016). A systematic review of the evidence base for
vidian neurectomy in managing rhinitis. The Journal of Laryngology & Otology, 130(S4), S7-S28.
Shankar, P. S., Korukonda, K., Bendre, S., Behera, D., Mirchandani, L., Awad, N. T., … & Jindal, S. K. (2020).
Diagnoses and management of adult cough: An Indian Environmental Medical Association (EMA) position
paper. Respiratory Medicine, 168, 105949.
Version of English Standard Version