Required reading, videos, and attached files
Kakkar, A., Naushad, S., & Khatri, S. K. (2017). Telemedicine and EHR integrated approach for an effective E-governance healthcare framework. International Journal of Medical Research and Health Sciences, 6(5), 108-114. Retrieved from:
The 7 Categories of Healthcare Information Technology
Video: Transforming Healthcare with Technology
Assignment #1:Technology is changing and evolving. Conduct a search of the Internet, library, or print literature to identify several new or emerging technologies for maintaining health records. Prepare a 10-slide PowerPoint to explain the following questions:
- Describe each technology and discuss its potential use in the management of health care information or the development of health care information systems.
- What proportion of the data in the patient’s medical record is captured electronically? What information is recorded manually? Do you think the method of capture affects the quality of the information?
- List three major inpatient clinical information systems and explain how technology enables these systems to deliver improved care.
- Identify two outpatient clinical information systems and explain how these systems differ from inpatient clinical information systems.
Assignment #1 Expectation:
- Your references and citations should be consistent with a particular formatting style, such as APA.
- Provide references from at least three scholarly articles and peer-reviewed journals.
- Your response should be based on reliable and scholarly material, such as peer-reviewed articles, white papers, technical papers
Assignment #2: continue with the selected healthcare organization from Module 1, and respond to the items below:
- How would you explain data analytics to your leadership team? What does it mean?
- What are three opportunities to use Big Data in your organization?
- How can Big Data benefit your patients?
- How is Big Data used to identify healthcare fraud?
Assigment #2 Expectation: same as #1
Ruiz Morilla et al. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making (2017) 17:92
Implementing technology in healthcare:
insights from physicians
Maria Dolors Ruiz Morilla1,2,5*, Mireia Sans2,3, Albert Casasa2,4 and Nuria Giménez5,6
Background: Technology has significantly changed the way health organizations operate. However, the role it
plays in healthcare systems remains unclear. This aim of this study was to evaluate the opinion of physicians
regarding e-health and determine what factors influence their opinion and describe the advantages, inconveniences
and threats they may perceive by its use.
Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study. A questionnaire which had been previously designed and
validated by the authors was used to interview physicians from the Barcelona Medical Association. 930 physicians were
contacted by phone to participate in the study.
Results: Seven hundred sixty physicians responded to the questionnaire (response rate: 82%). The usefulness of
telemedicine scored 7.4 (SD 1.8) on a scale from 1–10 (from the lowest to the highest) and the importance of the
Internet in the workplace was 8.2 points (SD 1.8). Therapeutic compliance (7.0 -SD 1.8-) and patient health (7.0 -SD 1.7-)
showed the best scores, and there were differences between professionals who had and had not previously
participated in a telemedicine project (p < 0.05). The multivariate regression model explained the 41% of the variance for 7 factors: participation in telemedicine project (p < 0.001), quality of clinical practice (p < 0.001), patient health (p < 0. 001), professional workload (p = 0.005), ease-of-use of electronic device (p = 0.007), presence of incentives for telemedicine (p = 0.011) and patient preference for in-person visits (p = 0.05). Conclusions: Physicians believe in the usefulness of e-health. Professionals with previous experience with it are more open to its implementation and consider that the benefits of technology outweigh its possible difficulties and shortcomings. Physicians demanded projects with appropriate funding and technology, as well as specific training to improve their technological abilities. The relationship of users with technology differs according to their personal or professional life. Although a 2.0 philosophy has been incorporated into many aspects of our lives, healthcare systems still have a long way to go in order to adapt to this new understanding of the relationship between patients and their health. Keywords: Attitude to health, Health knowledge, Attitudes, Telemedicine, Delivery of healthcare, Diffusion of innovation, Physician-patient relations, Attitude to computers, Surveys and questionnaires, Organizational innovation Background There has been a rise in the demand in healthcare systems in Western countries due to aging of the population, an increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases, and limitations in funding, especially after the recent economic recession . In this context, the introduction of computers and technology can help to improve the * Correspondence: email@example.com 1 CAP Terrassa Oest. MútuaTerrassa, Terrassa, Barcelona, Spain 2 Health 2.0 section of the Col·legi Oficial de Metges de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain Full list of author information is available at the end of the article efficiency of the healthcare system and the care provided to patients/users . For the purpose of this paper we use the terminology in the following way. E –health is used referring to health services and information delivered or enhanced through the Internet and related technologies . We consider telemedicine (TM) as the use of medical information to improve the health of patients via electronic communication . E-health allows access to health resources and healthcare by electronic means . It provides an opportunity to not only to preserve or © The Author(s). 2017 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Ruiz Morilla et al. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making (2017) 17:92 improve the quality of healthcare more cost-effectively but also allows healthcare services to be reinvented in order to make them more dynamic and able to adapt to technological changes. Finally we talk about having a 2.0 attitude in relation to having incorporated the principles of Web 2.0. It is characterized by greater user interactivity and collaboration, more pervasive network connectivity and enhanced communication channels. The role of TM in public healthcare is controversial. Many technological solutions are currently possible , however, it is not the technology of TM that is important but rather the new approach to provide and organize healthcare services. Indeed, TM changes physician-patient relationships allowing more direct patient involvement in the decision making related to their health [7–9]. However, despite political commitment and significant investment, the application of technology to healthcare systems has not always been successful [4, 10]. The factors which can facilitate or hinder the introduction of TM in healthcare have been described in depth , with legal and regulatory issues, questions involving reimbursement and the impact on the effectiveness and the quality of care being the most common barriers reported [6, 12]. The success of TM depends on the end-users, that is the physicians and patients actually using it, and this largely depends on how it is implemented . Different models have been proposed to predict what factors will determine its success. For example, the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) has been applied to determine how physicians come to accept and use TM , and two factors have been identified as important predictors of the use of technology: perceived ease-of-use and perceived usefulness [15–17]. Thus, physicians must be involved and their needs taken into account in order to implement this change . Moreover, it is important to understand the relationship between physicians and technology and how they evaluate the introduction of new technologies in their daily clinical practice. Taking all of the above into account, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the opinions of physicians regarding e-health. Secondary objectives were to evaluate what variables influence their opinion regarding e-health, to describe the advantages, inconveniences and threats these professionals perceive with the use of telemedicine and how they use new technologies. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was designed. A TM questionnaire which had previously been designed and validated by our team in collaboration with other healthcare professionals was used . A new section on the use of technological devices was added to Page 2 of 9 the questionnaire. In total, the questionnaire included eight theoretical sections and 46 variables (Additional file 1: Table S1). The study population consisted of physicians belonging to the Barcelona Medical Association -Col · legi Oficial de Metges de Barcelona- (n = 31,972) the official institution including all the physicians practicing in the province of Barcelona (Spain). Only physicians who had agreed to be interviewed by telephone were chosen (n = 20,189) according to the law on data protection and were randomized. A total of 930 physicians were contacted by phone from May to June 2015, 760 of whom responded to the questionnaire (response rate 82%). A researcher recorded their response to each question done over the phone. Participation was voluntary, and information on the nature of the study was provided during the telephone call. The participants were informed that the information would only be used for the purpose of investigation and confidentiality and anonymity were guaranteed. Details on participation are provided in Fig. 1. According to Murray et al., we consider professionals who are dedicated to management to be “implementers” because of their role in the planning of healthcare services and in the final decision as to whether or not to incorporate technology into these services . The professionals studied were classified into three age groups: under 40 years of age, 40–50 years, and over 50 years old. Fig. 1 Participation diagram Ruiz Morilla et al. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making (2017) 17:92 Statistical analysis We evaluated the reliability of the questionnaire using the Cronbach alpha coefficient. No variable presented losses greater than 5%. In addition, quantitative variables were expressed as numbers and percentages, and semiquantitative variables were scored on a scale of 1–10 (from the lowest to the highest) and were expressed quantitatively with at least one measurement of central tendency and one of dispersion. The normality was explored with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The Chisquare test was used to compare qualitative variables and means were compared with the Student’s t test and ANOVA. In the multivariate multiple regression model, the evaluation of the utility of TM by the physicians was considered as a dependent variable, and predicted variables were those showing statistical significance in the bivariate analysis adjusted for age. The enter method was used to perform the analyses. Statistical significance was accepted with a p value < 0.05, with a bilateral approach. The SPSS 17.0 programwas used (SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA). Data exclusion Participants who refused to participate in the study were excluded, as were those who could not be contacted. Results Seven hundred sixty physicians responded to our survey, being a response rate of 82% (Fig. 1). All of the questions were answered by more than 95% of participants. Table 1 shows the characteristics of the study population; 53% were women with a mean age of 46 years (SD 11). Opinion of e-health Participation in telemedicine and the perception of its usefulness The mean score of the usefulness of TM was 7.4 (SD 1.8). Thirty percent of the responders reported having previously participated in a TM project. This participation was significantly more frequent among physicians in the public compared to the private sector (p < 0.001), especially among physicians in primary care or third level hospitals. Table 2 describes the factors that influence the usefulness of TM. Physicians with previous experience with TM scored its utility higher and perceived greater possibilities or benefits with its use. No differences were found in the area of needs and difficulties. Table 3 shows the data from the multiple regression model with the usefulness of TM as a dependent variable. The independent variables were those found to be significant in the bivariate analysis in addition to age. Page 3 of 9 Table 1 Socio-demographic data of the physicians included in the study Variable Frequency (percentage) N total 760 (100%) Age Under 40 285 (38%) 41–50 163 (21%) Over 50 312 (41%) Sex Male 355 (47%) Female 405 (53%) Residence Barcelona area 444 (58%) Other 316 (42%) Specialty Primary 348 (46%) Hospital: Medical 240(32%) Surgical 104 (14%) Central support services 68 (9%) Sector Public 425 (56%) Private 142 (19%) Both 188 (25%) Place of work Primary health centre 312 (41%) Level 3 hospital 169 (22%) Level 1–2 hospital 112 (15%) Private practice 112 (15%) Healthcare centre 25 (3%) Other 30 (4%) Position Medical staff 697 (92%) Management 61 (8%) The factors that were found to influence telemedicine were previous experience with telemedicine, the quality of clinical practice and patient health. Differences according to age and devices available Professionals under the age of 40 years with a smartphone scored the utility of TM higher than those without and considered TM to be able to improve the health of patients and therapeutic compliance (Additional file 2: Table S2). No differences were observed in the opinion of professionals regarding TM according to whether or not they had a PC. Ruiz Morilla et al. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making (2017) 17:92 Page 4 of 9 Table 2 Factors that influence the usefulness of TM Opportunities –benefits Item Needs Average score ± SD Difficulties Item Average score ± SD Item Average score ± SD Has experience with TM Has not experience with TM Frequency of in-person visits 6.5 ± 2.0 6.2 ± 1.9 Patients’ preference for in-person visits 6.5 ± 2.1 Safety and confidentiality of information 5.7 ± 2.3 Administrative work 6.4 ± 2.1 6.3 ± 2.2 Professionals’ preference for in-person visits 6.4 ± 2.0 Ease-of-use of electronic devices 6.9 ± 1.9 Therapeutic compliance* 7.0 ± 1.8 6.5 ± 1.8 Patients’ technological skills 6.7 ± 1.9 Record of profesionals’ performance 6.8 ± 2.0 Healthcare costs 6.7 ± 1.7 6.5 ± 1.8 Professionals’ technological skills 6.9 ± 1.9 Needfor training 7.1 ± 1.9 Quality of clinical practice* 6.9 ± 1.9 6.4 ± 1.9 Appropiate electronic device 7.6 ± 2.0 Technical difficulties in the use of TM 6.3 ± 2.0 Patient health* 7. 0 ± 1.7 6.4 ± 1.6 Project funding 7.8 ± 2.0 Time needed for electronic visits 6.4 ± 2.1 Professional workload 6.1 ± 2.1 6.1 ± 2.1 Time needed for each patient 6.2 ± 2.0 Presence of incentives for TM 6.2 ± 2.3 Sum of opportunities* 6.6 ± 1.2 6.3 ± 1.3 Sum of needs 6.9 ± 1.2 Sum of difficulties 6.5 ± 1.2 Variables are scored on a scale of 1–10 (from least to greatest) *p < 0.05 difference between having or not having previous experience in TM project using the T-student test Physicians over the age of 50 with a tablet gave more importance to the Internet in the workplace and evaluated the usefulness of TM higher compared to those without a tablet. These physicians also considered that TM would improve the quality of clinical practice, patient health, therapeutic compliance, healthcare costs and administrative work. This group expected more difficulties in the introduction of TM into clinical practice and were more concerned about the ease-of-use of the devices, registry of professional performance and the presence of incentives. They also considered that adequate funding was essential. Implementers and telemedicine Physicians working in management scored the following areas higher compared to the remaining participants: benefits of TM in therapeutic compliance (7.2 vs. 6.6, p = 0.02), improvement of healthcare costs (7.1 vs. 6.5, p < 0.01), and administrative work (7.1 vs. 6.2, p < 0.01), and the need for incentives for professionals to use TM to ensure its success (6.8 vs. 6.2, p < 0.06). Private medicine and the perception of telemedicine Physicians working in private medicine scored the following areas higher than those in public institutions: benefits of TM in improving patient health (6.8 vs. 6.5, p