HLT 4310 HBU Health & Medical Mission Objectives and Health Education Objectives Paper

HLT 4310 – Project Assignment 1The University of Houston
Dr. Eliz Markowitz
Over the course of the semester, you will develop a health education intervention program that is
focused on tackling a health condition for a given priority population.
In order to complete this assignment, you must select a health condition and a priority population. I
would highly recommend that you email me or speak to me after class to confirm that your priority
population and health condition are suitable before you complete this assignment. As discussed in class,
your priority population needs to be as specific as possible. After all, the program you design needs to
be tailored to the specific population you select.
For example, you may decide to create a health education program that educates individuals on the best
practices for managing cardiovascular disease. You would then need to select the target population. For
example, your priority population may be uninsured Hispanic males aged 40-54 of a lower
socioeconomic status living in Harris County, Texas.
Keep in mind that this assignment is the first in a semester-long project that will result in you developing
a health education program. Since each assignment builds upon the last, the quality of the work you do
now will greatly impact the work you do later. As you will see below, this assignment consists of multiple
parts and you should not wait until the last minute to tackle this assignment.
Please contact me if you have any questions!
Due: 06/10/2022 at 11:59 PM
Value: 100 points

Part I: Literature Review with 5 articles (45 points)
Part II: Needs Assessment Questions (50 points)
Style, Content, Spelling, Grammar, etc. (5 points)
Format: See next page for general template for Part I and Part II.
Part I: Literature Review
Use the UH Library or other professional database to review articles and identify risk factors. Identify
health behaviors and/or risk factors associated with your health condition/problem as it relates to
and/or impacts a priority population of your choosing. Focus on governmental reports and peer-reviewed
academic journal articles and detail the major findings from your literature review below. (45 points)
Health Condition:
Article Title
Authors & Publication Year
Risk Factors (at least 3)
Major Findings
Part II: Needs Assessment
Once you’ve completed the literature review, you will perform a needs assessment and answer the
following questions related to your findings. Answers should be complete and comprehensive; i.e., write
in complete sentences and provide robust answers. (45 points)
1. Describe the priority population that suffers from the health condition you have selected, including
any relevant statistics, geographic, and demographic information.
2. What are the health care needs of your priority population because of their health condition?
3. What is currently being done to address the health care needs of the priority population?
4. What health promotion and education programs already exist to address these health care needs?
5. What community, government, and other external resources are available locally to the priority
population to meet their health care needs?
6. What health education programs still need to be developed to inform the priority population about
the health condition?
7. Based on your previous answer, what health education program will you develop over the course of
this semester and why?
8. What are challenges to implementing the program you’ve decided to develop, and how will you
tackle these challenges?
9. How does your selected health education program benefit the community?
10. How do you anticipate funding and maintaining this project?
Understanding American Lifestyle during Covid-19 Pandemic
Mays Karzone
HLT 4307
Dr. Kamdar-Sharif
Understanding American Lifestyle during Covid-19 Pandemic
Research study questions
What is influencing most Americans to strictly adhere to Covid-19 guidelines?
What is influencing some Americans to ignore Covid-19 safety guidelines?
Have Americans adapted to Covid guidelines as part of their lifestyle from 2020 to 2022?
How does mask wearing and social distancing influence American norms and culture?
Literature Review
Covid-19 has definitely had an impact on social norms, culture, and everyday lifestyles. In order
to survive during the Covid-19 pandemic, the World Health Organization and the department of health
issued various guidelines that could help citizens evade the deadly virus while pursuing their daily
activities. According to Bellato (2020), adherence to Covid-19 regulations is largely due to
psychological underpinning, where individuals were forced to adhere to set regulations as a response to
fear of the unknown. The high death rates reported across countries was a major influencing factor for
adherence since individuals feared succumbing to Covid-19 just like others as reported in news
platforms. Bellato (2020) also reports that empathy was at play in influencing individuals to adhere to
set Covid-19 guidelines. Bellato (2020) outlines that the ability to see others in pain and understanding
their level of suffering is associated with empathy, which guides individuals to exercise restraint in order
to avoid being affected like the victims. As such, many Americans chose to adhere to Covid-19
regulations because they shared in the pain and anguish that victims underwent during the Covid-19
situation. Bellato (2020) also argues that individuals chose to adhere to Covid-19 guidelines in order to
maintain their positive mood. Individuals chose to adhere to the regulations to avoid engagement with
the police and other government agencies, which would have interfered with their mood. Individuals
also chose to maintain regulations in order to appeal to friends, colleagues, and relatives, thereby
maintaining a positive mood, unity, and close relations at a time when many were being put on
quarantine or lockdowns due to contracting the virus. Bellato (2020) adds that individuals chose to
adhere to the set regulations because of social influence. The regulations set forth to prevent spread of
Covid-19 soon became public guidelines and led to organizations, communities, and entire societies
enforcing the rules at the ground level. As such, family members, colleagues, and friends urged others
who did not adhere to set guidelines to adhere to them to promote unison.
Despite large scale adherence across the US, some individuals, groups, and organizations openly
defied adherence to Covid-19 regulations. This cohort of individuals had their own motivations and
guidelines that influenced them to disregard Covid-19 regulations. One of the factors that influenced
nonadherence was social norms (Kemmelmeier & Jami, 2021). Covid-19 occurred at a time when
individuals were used to socializing in clubs, hotels, and other public spaces. This tendency to continue
enjoying their social events and gatherings was a major factor in influencing disregard to regulations.
Despite some efforts to adhere to regulations, most individuals forgot about the presence of the
pandemic and openly continued their events and socialization. Apart from that, individuals must have
failed to adhere to Covid-19 regulations due to social pressure. Some organizations and activists were up
in arms against Covid-19 regulations, and they must have had a large impact in influencing some
individuals to disregard social distancing and masking. The lies and accusations spread by such
organizations and activists definitely influenced individuals to disregard the call to adhere to Covid-19
regulations (Bellato, 2020). Apart from that, another issue that prevented individuals from adhering to
Covid-19 regulations is superstition and derailed beliefs. Some individuals had belief that the virus
could be treated using traditional medication or prayers, and thus disregarded the set regulations and
lived their lives freely. Some individuals also believed that the illness was specific to the Chinese and
could not cross borders to devastate overseas lands. Such beliefs definitely affected adhere to Covid-19
Mask wearing and social distancing are two antisocial elements that emerged during the Coid-19
surge. Human culture and social norms have historically as well as in the contemporary society
necessitated social connection and closeness between individuals. These tenets were challenged greatly
with passing of the need for social distancing of at least 1 meter during the Covvid-19 pandemic
(Bellato, 2020). Similarly important is the fact that mask wearing also affected culture and social norms.
Although the US society is largely considered as an individualistic society, the occurrence of the
pandemic enhanced this notion and greatly separated individuals, families, friends, and colleagues. Mask
wearing led to broken communication between individuals, and thus challenged socialization and
cultural norms in the US (PouyanEsmaeilzadeh, 2022). Adherence to social distancing and use of masks
also affected how stories could be made. Individuals were forced to adopt body language and sign
language as a major mediator or media in narrating stories.
Bellato, A. (2020). Psychological factors underlying adherence to COVID-19 regulations: A
commentary on how to promote compliance through mass media and limit the risk of a second
wave. Social Sciences & Humanities Open. doi:10.1016/j.ssaho.2020.100062
Kemmelmeier, M., & Jami, W. A. (2021). Mask Wearing as Cultural Behavior: An Investigation Across
45 U.S. States During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Frontiers in Psychology.
PouyanEsmaeilzadeh. (2022). Public concerns and burdens associated with face mask-wearing: Lessons
learned from the COVID-19 pandemic. Progress in Disaster Science.
Project Assignment 2
Mays Karzone
June 16, 2022
Project Assignment 2
Mission Statement
Lung cancer’s health-seeking behavior allows victims or lung cancer patients to seek
medical intervention. So, health-seeking behavior in lung cancer includes a long-standing cough
that only worsens with time, persistent breathlessness, coughing blood, pain when breathing or
coughing, and recurring chest infections. Individuals who show these symptoms should always
seek medical help since they could be having lung cancer. Unexplainable weight loss and
persistent tiredness or lack of energy are other reasons that could drive a person to seek health
consultation or medical help for lung cancer. The priority population for this study is middle
eastern men aged between 25 to 40 years.
Background on Health Condition and Priority Population
Lung cancer is one of the most fatal, serious, and common types of cancer in the world
today. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention identifies it as the third most diagnosed
cancer in the United States in both men and women. Understandably, lung cancer tops the list of
the leading causes of cancer death globally, contributing to a significant percentage of all global
cancer deaths. Yearly, more people die from lung cancer than any other type of cancer. However,
recent trends indicate that lung cancer’s prevalence and mortality rates continue to decline partly
because more people are realizing the negative health impacts of smoking and are quitting the
deadly habit. Malhotra et al. (2016), Chen and Wu (2020), and Huang et al. (2022) underlined
smoking as the leading cause of lung cancer globally. The CDC further identifies cigarette and
tobacco smoking as the leading risk factors for lung cancer in the U.S., linking to about 80 to 90
percent of lung cancer deaths reported in the country annually. According to the CDC, tobacco
smoke includes a mixture of at least 7,000 toxic chemicals that, when introduced into the lungs,
increase the smoker’s susceptibility to developing lung cancer. Concisely, lung cancer is a fatal
type of cancer mainly caused by long-term cigarette or tobacco smoking.
The priority population of this study is middle eastern men aged between 25 to 40 years.
Understandably, men aged between 25 to 40 years are the most vulnerable population to lung
cancer since they find smoking a lifestyle. This lifestyle becomes a habit and an addiction, with
quitting becoming hard. Besides, men are the most vulnerable group than women. Men are the
most prone due to their daily undertakings and the nature of their work. Men comprise the largest
percentage of the population that work in environments with heavy metals, chemicals, asbestos,
and silica, which are also significant causes of lung cancer. Typically, this study’s target or priority
population is at a higher risk of lung cancer due to their lifestyle and occupation.
Why Lung Cancer is a Health Problem
Lung cancer is a serious health problem due to several reasons. One reason that shows lung
cancer is a serious health problem is its high prevalence rate. The CDC identifies lung cancer as
one of the most common types of cancer globally and the second most diagnosed cancer in the
U.S. This means that its prevalence rate in the U.S. and globally is high, making it a serious health
problem and concern. Lung cancer’s mortality rate also indicates that the condition is a serious
health problem and concern. The CDC underlines that smokers are 15 or 30 times more likely to
die from lung cancer than nonsmokers. Hence, with high prevalence and death rates, lung cancer is
a serious health concern and problem.
Successful, Unsuccessful, and Existing Programs and Interventions
The priority population needs assistance in reducing their susceptibility to lung cancer.
Some of the programs and interventions put in place are proving to be beneficial and successful
since more people are quitting smoking and adopting healthy and good lifestyle choices. The other
programs yet to be implemented are more likely to be successful and beneficial since they have
succeeded in other areas. Health education programs have been introduced to help smokers and
addicts reduce smoking and avert the vice. Free health consultations have been successful with
other health conditions; therefore, they are also more likely to be effective in helping the priority
population. This initiative can help in the early diagnosis of lung cancer to reduce lung cancer
death rates among middle eastern men aged between 25 to 40 years. Annual screening or
examinations for lung cancer in the priority population will also contribute to their overall
betterment. The U.S. Preventive Service Task Force (USPSTF) has emphasized that annual
screening for lung cancer in grownups can facilitate early diagnosis of the condition, leading to
timely prevention, treatment, and better outcomes. Furthermore, online ads addressing lung
cancer’s health risks will help educate society. Additionally, free health education seminars for
workers, especially in the workplace, addressing the prevention of lung cancer and the dangers of
smoking will benefit the priority population.

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