Pancreatic cancer the formation of a tumor in the pancreases due to abnormal cells that grow and divide out of control. The disease is considered incurable, with no symptoms in the early stages with a 1-year survival rate of 20% and 5 years 7% (Hirshberg Foundation for Pancreatic Cancer Research, 2020).
Based on the collected data from 1999-2016, Colorado has a pancreatic cancer incidence rate of 646 from a population of 5,342,311, whereas, Wisconsin has an incidence rate of 1007 from a population of 5,751,272. However, although both states population is similar to a 408,961 difference, Wisconsin incidence rate is 1.5 times higher than Colorado (Wonder 2019; Wonder 2019).
In Colorado, based on race and gender, white females had a 4,038-incidence rate and 3,584 mortality rates and white males had a 4,302, incidence rate and 3,760 mortality rates. Whereas, black females had a 173-incidence rate and 157 mortality rates and black males had 185 incidence rate and a 152 mortality rates. In Wisconsin, based on race and gender, white females had a 6,427-incidence rate and 6,020 mortality rates and white males had a 6,756-incidence rate and 6,105 mortality rates. Whereas, black females had a 342-incidence rate and 295 mortality rates and black males had 314 incidence rate and 276 mortality rates (Wonder 2019; Wonder 2019). However, based on the analysis, white males have a higher incidence and mortality rate of pancreatic cancer, whereas, black females have a higher incidence and mortality rate of pancreatic cancer. This might be due to cultural or social determinants factors.
Therefore, based on the data, there seem to be possible contributing factors, such as biology, genetic, environment and social determinates that increase the pancreatic cancer incidence rate. The environmental factor can be associated with social determinants where alcohol and smoking are prevalent because of income status and increased stress levels, resulting in drinking and smoking to alleviate stress. Diabetes is also a factor contributed by social determinant and environment, because of the availability of cheaper, but unhealthy food and lack of healthcare access. Genetic factors can be cystic fibrosis and pancreatitis by hereditary factors and biological factors can be due to being exposed to a carcinogen for a long duration (industrial factories & nuclear plants) (Zavoral et al., 2011).
Hirshberg Foundation for Pancreatic Cancer Research (2020). Pancreatic Cancer. Retrieved from
Wonder. (2019). United States and Puerto Rico Cancer Statistics, 1999-2016 Incidence Results. Retrieved from
Wonder. (2019). United States and Puerto Rico Cancer Statistics, 1999-2016 Mortality Results. Retrieved from
Zavoral, M., Minarikova, P., Zavada, F., Salek, C., & Minarik, M. (2011). Molecular biology of pancreatic cancer.World J Gastroenterol, 17(24), 2897-2908. Doi: