UOP Health & Medical Research Ethics and Validity Paper

  • Write a paper in which you:
  • Choose a Research Study (may use one form your annotated bibliography) **Must be a study**
  • Briefly summarize the research study in one paragraph (i.e. problem being studied, methods-qualitative/quantitative, and results).
  • Identify possible ethical issues within the research study (either stated by author or possible issues based on discussions this week on ethical principals).
  • Explain how the ethical concerns can influence the research outcomes.
  • Define validity as it relates to the research study.
  • Hint: Review previous learning activities for key validity concepts, including internal and external validity and associated threats to validity.
  • Discuss the importance of research design validity and how research bias can impact validity.
  • Hint: Research how design validity and instrumentation validity are different concepts.
  • Discuss how stakeholders can externally influence health care research.
  • Katie Sapkosky
    Week4 Individual Assignment
    Katie Sapkosky
    Week 4 Individual Assignment
    Research Ethics and Validity
    Katie Sapkosky
    Week4 Individual Assignment
    Any serious illness can be overwhelming for a family, making it tougher than it already
    is. This is where hospice comes into play for both the patient and family affected by such illnesses.
    Hospice care is healthcare that focuses on the easing of a terminally ill patient’s pain level and
    puts a great emphasis on the patient’s spiritual and emotional needs during end stage. Hospice
    cares main goal is to be there for patients and their families, assuring the best life remaining for
    the beloved person or as it’s known endorsing relief and dignity and uneasiness at the end of
    life(West, Galicia-Castillo, Cadieux, & Parks-Savage, 2018).
    All ethical inclusion is vital to all research studies performed. This paper describes the
    ethical and pragmatic concerns developing from the methods of doing a participant’s observation
    research within an inpatient hospice setting. Hospice is healthcare given at end of life, geared to
    help you or a loved one remain comfortable while addressing issues that arise from such terminal
    Katie Sapkosky
    Week4 Individual Assignment
    illness. Studying every participant helps to provide a feasible and variable data compilation
    procedure; though, it also has managed to bring about many dilemmas. Difficulties have come up
    more than spoken of, especially in obtaining any informed consent from individual or the families
    that were willing to take part in and think that it was still and is effective, even after the mental
    and physical decline of the patients. In this study, all of the participating healthcare professionals
    where stunned at their observances. It meant that they were gaining valuable information, which
    reflected upon the individuals(patients) actions and behaviors. When the healthcare professionals
    planned the research study, several of them had questions in regard to ethical inclusion in the
    behavior of research with the calming care population. They argued that patient’s who are dying
    are vulnerable. These patients are mentally and physically vulnerable, the monitoring for them is
    tiresome. There are many unstable mental statuses, consent protocols, family members inclusion,
    and the insensitivity of the evaluations where all reviewed. It honestly doe not matter what we
    think, it’s what we know that works best during this time frame. As long as our knowledge of
    palliative care allow us to help an important number of patients and families, many indications are
    currently intractable (Bruera, 1994).
    Healthcare professionals and all other members have heard conversations that may cause
    unnecessary exhaustion to the patient. and can be, at times, impossible. Particularly in cases of
    severe sedation or with those patients that are in a comatose state. Hospice staff members
    responded to a positive issue since they went native to it and accepted the responsibility of
    someone who would volunteer to do their research and collect the data through a direct
    observation instead of the heavy-handed use of conferences. This approach allowed the hospice
    Katie Sapkosky
    Week4 Individual Assignment
    staff to spend a good amount of time with patients, without affecting the larger dynamics taking
    place in the common areas and wards of the place. The method was proper and fair, it did not
    include requiring the patient’s time or emotional assets since all could be understood using
    observation. Active learning strategies will allow growth of association, communication, and
    critical thinking. All of these skills add to the ability of residents and faculty to develop a better
    comfort with all hospice conversations. There will be new amplified heights in hospice care with
    this research. More information will be given, hospice care will be talked about in a more
    positive manner, and the patient hospice care will be greater than it was before with all of the
    new findings. These findings will helped lead to an improved healthcare setting, during a time
    where it is most critical.
    As in any research study, consent is always taken for multiple reasons. Getting a consent
    from a patient or family is part of the ethical practice in health care. With every new patient it was
    hard to keep up with such consents, leaving room for error. If a patient willingly agreed to consent
    upon admission date, things could change from day to day with psychological factors leaving it
    impossible to use those patients in the study.
    Validity is best described as the quality of being logically or factually sound, soundness or
    cogency (Merriam-Webster, Inc, 2020). Validity is both internal and external. Internal validity is
    the extent to which a piece of evidence supports a claim about cause and effect, within the context
    Katie Sapkosky
    Week4 Individual Assignment
    of a particular study. External validity is extent to which the results of a study can be generalized
    to and across other situations, people, stimuli, and times (Wikipedia-the free encyclopedia, 2020).
    In the health care industry there is always a negative to a positive, but everything in life
    can be rewarding. These results mean better outcomes for those affected by severe illness. There
    are always breakthroughs as time and technology advances.
    Lack of adhering to standards of ethical issues in research such as notating findings or
    documenting proper consent can and will lead to bias. This will happen because those patients will
    give false information because of psychological factors unbeknownst to them. All parties involved
    in the study need to be assured that they will receive correct information.
    Merriam-Webster, Inc. (2020). Retrieved from Merriam-Webster: https://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/validity
    Wikipedia-the free encyclopedia. (2020, September). Retrieved from Wikipedia:
    Bruera, E. (1994). Ethical issues in palliative care research. Journal of Palliative Care, 10, 7-9
    Katie Sapkosky
    Week4 Individual Assignment
    Cassatly, M. G., D.M.D. (2011). Stakeholder partners: The new landscape in U.S.
    healthcare. The Journal of Medical Practice Management : MPM, 26(4), 199-202.
    Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/856362342?accountid=458
    Lawton, J. (2001). Gaining and Maintaining Consent: Ethical Concerns Raised in a Study of
    Dying Patients. Qualitative Health Research, 11(5), 693–705.
    Roberts, P., Priest, H., & Traynor, M. (2006). Reliability and validity in research. Nursing Standard
    (through 2013), 20(44), 41-5. Retrieved from https://search-proquestcom.contentproxy.phoenix.edu/docview/219850149?accountid=35812
    West, T. D., Galicia-Castillo, M. C., Cadieux, C. P., & Parks-Savage, A. (2018). Hospice Care Needs
    Study. American Journal of Medical Quality, 33(4), 443–445.

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