Waldorf University Reasonable Hypothesis Research Proposal

1Impact of Quality Operation Room’s Management on the Success of Surgical Procedures
This paper is a research proposal focusing on the impact of quality operating management on the
success of surgical operations. With an emphasis on methods of sampling, data collection, the
paper is focused on a qualitative approach and an effective approach in the promotion of better
and strategic measurement in the regulation of challenges as needed. Competent approaches are
necessary for the promotion of better and effective measures to promote effective and necessary
approaches to ensure that basic policies are implemented as needed. The paper is focused on the
main hypothesis that states a positive relationship between the individuals and the success of the
strategies as recommended for the accomplishment of necessary strategies that are useful and
comprehensive as needed. Thank you for the abstract and key words to set the tone for your
Keywords: operating management, quality strategies, surgery
Impact of Quality Operation Room’s Management on the Success of Surgical Procedures
Operations rooms are critical areas in healthcare settings that must always be organized,
and quality management applied to assist in reducing flaws and medical errors that are common in
modern medicine (Chernov et al., 2016). The following research is aimed at identifying the role
played by quality operation rooms’ management on the success of the surgical procedures. The
key metric in surgical procedures is the identification of needed concepts in the reduction of
adversities and the promotion of effective managerial practices as needed (Higgins et al., 2011).
As an intervention, it is always necessary to find possible solutions to the management challenges
and work all day to assist in promoting quality surgical procedures. The inspiration behind
selecting the topic is the level of precision required to accomplish the surgical procedures and
promote the necessary competence as recommended. The following research proposal seeks to
address the major and fundamental issues in the operation rooms ‘management as far as the
required surgical operations outcomes are concerned (Gupta 2007). Additionally, the proposal
seeks to address the key issues that are necessary for the promotion of better measures, and
implementation of quality and effective practices in the reduction of adversities for comprehensive
and better management approaches for necessary surgical procedure outcomes as per the
healthcare guidelines and standards applied. Good introduction – it is easy to follow what you are
introducing as a problem and how it might be managed.
Background Information
Surgical procedures are key determiners in the process of disease recovery, and the way
patients are handled in the course of such procedures is vital (Luo, Luo & Qin, 2016). Novice
surgeons (define a novice…someone new…a resident…someone with past mistakes?) have
always undergone maximum supervision to ensure that they deliver quality care as per the world
health organization’s standards. The key metrics of successful surgery is the quick recovery of the
patients, whereby minimum complications are reported, and the diseases are eliminated (Wap,
Tang & Ching, 2018). Surgical operations are conducted for various reasons, and they include
curative purposes, reconstructive surgery, and aesthetic surgery, among other needed techniques
that assist in the promotion of better approaches as needed.
Historically, the level of management in the operation rooms has been considered as the
key indicator when it comes to the prediction of outcomes in the patient surgical procedures. The
operations room management has been considered as 90% determiners of the orderliness in the
course of medical interventions (Wipfli et al., 2016). The success of any medical strategy and
intervention depends on the attitude of the surgical team (Wap, Tang & Ching, 2018). The
operations must always be conducted in a good setting whereby the rooms are effectively managed
to accomplish success and ensure that strategic interventions are applied for effective
implementations as needed. Based on the policy implementations, it is good to always focus on
the policy approaches and ensure that best practices are applied and necessary managerial
techniques implemented. I agree – but you are speaking in very broad terms at this point.
Hospital administrations are always glued towards efficient and flawless procedures to
maintain their reputations and promote quality services for the patients with conditions (Wap, Tang
& Ching, 2018). The success of surgical interventions requires that better services are applied and
necessary policies integrated for a successful process to be accomplished. The best and crucial
approach is always necessary to be applied in the mitigation of challenges and the promotion of
comprehensive managerial techniques. Research has shown that 75% of the operation rooms’
management determines the outcomes of most of the procedures that are conducted there (Wap,
Tang & Ching, 2018). The surgical suite is supposed to be well-organized and presented in a
sophisticated manner to accomplish the necessary success for effective practices as needed. Based
on the policy implementations, it is the best and required service providers to ensure that best
approaches are implemented for an effective approach and mitigation of the measures as needed.
Surgical operations require peace and seamless management practices whereby the
involved parties are focused and glued to the goal of delivering quality care. The best intervention
is to an organization the surgical team and promotes good outcomes. The mortality rates following
surgical operations are as a result of disorganized care and poor management techniques that
reduce the competence of the healthcare team, especially when it comes to the deserved medical
processes for effective implementation as needed (Wap, Tang & Ching, 2018). A practical
approach requires that implemented policies are applied to reduce the number of complications
following surgical interventions implemented. You are still speaking in very broad terms – I still
don’t have an example of what a good example of an operating room quality management
technique is, and we are 2.5 pages in to your paper.
Research has shown that 20% of the surgical accidents are associated with managerial
issues of the operation rooms, and the need to successfully implement better strategies is regarded
as the best and needed approach in the reduction of challenges (Higgins et al., 2011). A good policy
is based on applied approaches to reduce the adversities and promote an effective policy for the
management of the practices as needed. Some of the strategic measures require that effective
measures are followed for mitigation of challenges and promotion of a good concept as needed.
Operation rooms are regarded as the units in healthcare organizations that deserve high levels of
orderliness to accomplish better and necessary results as recommended (Wap, Tang & Ching,
2018). A good result is supposed to be implemented to assist in the control of any negative outcome
associated with the process. Overall, poor leadership techniques in healthcare are a real challenge
and impediment to successful integrations and approaches implemented to accomplish the success
of the surgical procedures from the operating rooms.
The solution to poor surgical room management is considering a change in the management
to ensure that flawless procedures are conducted and successful approaches for better strategies
and policies as needed (Wipfli et al., 2016). A good policy necessary for needed success requires
that effective management processes are followed and implemented for accomplishing the needed
successful approaches as needed. Strategically, a good dimension of healthcare quality must
address the management techniques to assist in operation rooms’ management and foster a
successful intervention as needed. Again – not a clear example of such a technique… just that
there are techniques that should be followed to ensure positive outcomes. I need you to be a bit
more specific here in your presentation.
H1: Better operation rooms’ management results in quality outcomes of surgical procedures with
minimum complications.
The study is going to involve a qualitative design for investigating the necessary positive
impacts of surgical operations associated with operations rooms’ management. The management
techniques are going to be explored, and the Likert scale used to determine the attitude of the
healthcare workers and professionals when it comes to the needed strategies and policies as
recommended. Simple random sampling will be employed in the study to assist in gauging the
competent group to be used in the study. The specific study needs require that a small sample of
the hospitals with theatre rooms identified and gauged in the competence as per the needed
techniques and strategic interventions as needed. Theatre rooms? Do you mean operating rooms?
Data collection will be conducted through self-administered questionnaires, interviews,
and review of relevant records and literature that may be useful in the topic. The study area will
be in the hospitals and medical settings, whereby needed data will be obtained to satisfy the needs
of the research. Additionally, the study will involve seeing the consent of the study participants to
help in operating within the ethical considerations and guidelines as needed. A perfect control
strategy is needed to assist in the mitigation of challenges and the promotion of a competent
strategy and reduction of adversities as required. Again, you are operating under very broad
statements and not giving me a clear picture of what the study methodology will be in your design.
How many participants are you randomly sampling? How many do you need to be sure you are
demonstrating statistical significance if there is one to be found (as a few examples)?
The research participants are supposed to be 50 healthcare organizations with operations
rooms that are functional. Do you care what level of severity/acuity that patients are in those
operating rooms? For instance, do you want to include or omit trama centers as those operating
rooms are very different than a small regional hospital. The criteria for assignment depends on
several factors such as the number of admissions to the rooms daily. Also, the scope of the
operation rooms based on the number of surgical interventions and procedures that they can offer
to the patients. Ok, such as what? Tell me the procedures you want to include and which you want
to omit. The key metrics (what metrics? I don’t recall reading any yet) must be met by the study
participants to quality and meet the criteria of being included in the study as recommended. A
good basis of study must always take into consideration the key metrics of inclusion into the study
to assist in the reduction of the negative consequences.
As a procedure, the main method that will be used in assigning the participants the right to
participate is simple random sampling among the eligible parties who meet the required
qualifications. Needed approaches are necessary to implement the best and quality strategies for
the promotion of best and effective measures as needed. Some of the challenges require that
competent approaches are applied for meeting the goals and desired needs to ensure that better and
effective measures are applied as necessary. Once the samples shall have been assigned, the study
will progress based on the controlled protocols and needed strategies to assist in the elimination of
adversities as needed. Again, you are being very broad (not specific) on what will actually happen
in terms of group assignment of participants in this study.
The study will be assessed as to whether it will be on track based on the way the
organizations will be responding to the questions and willing to give the data on the managerial
techniques. I have no idea what kind of questions they are being asked, if the questions come from
a trusted questionnaire, etc. Managerial techniques is another term that is difficult to quantify what
it means exactly at this point. The study sample must comply with the minimal requirements of
inclusion you never defined those to assist in coming up with better and good values for quality
analysis. Also, the level of accuracy will be gauged based on the implemented metrics and quality
identifications that are good in determining the nature of operations rooms and the prediction of
the same when it comes to the outcomes of the surgical procedures.
Also, errors and bias will be assessed and minimized from the nature of the operations and
required strategies in management as needed. What kind of errors do you expect to minimize?
You will certainly be able to assess them, but you cant minimize something that already exists that
is measured. I understand if you are trying to minimize future errors, but that is not the purpose
of your study. The healthcare organizations to be included in the study will be assessed based on
the previously identified metrics to minimize the chances of errors and bias. Also, location bias
and category bias will be considered, whereby the hierarchy of the hospitals based on the national
requirements will be effectively identified and mitigated. Since total quality research will be the
main intention of regulating the adversities, it will be to reduce the levels of bias and control the
challenges by focusing on the strategies that reduce the errors and promote competence and
necessary strategies as recommended.
From researching the impact of quality operation rooms’ management on the success of
surgical procedures, several results are expected based on the identified metrics and successful
interventions associated with the same. The results are expected to be positive, considering the
predicted values that must be applied to promote the needed success as needed. This does not make
sense to me. Based on the applied policies, it is necessary to follow basic approaches and ensure
that better policies are applied for the implementation of good practices in the reduction of
adversities as needed.
Additionally, the results are expected to show a positive trend when it comes to the
outcomes of surgical procedures with effective management of operating rooms. Good
management techniques are considered effective for integrated practices and identification of best
ideas in the control of challenges. Based on the policies and needed techniques, it is good to always
focus on good results. The results are most likely to show a high level of satisfaction of the patients
undergoing surgical procedures with the processes identified. Since there is always a necessity to
consider positive and quality approaches in the implemented practices, a good approach is needed
to promote better approaches for good surgical outcomes. With effective managerial styles, there
is a likelihood of the processes to become successful and assist in the promotion of better
techniques as needed.
Also, the expected result is that the level of performance of the surgical team depends on
the nature of quality implemented in operation rooms’ management. The outcomes of surgical
interventions are dependent on the nature of the practices implemented and effective protocols
implemented. Based on the predicted values, it is most likely to lead to the earlier considered
results as positive as needed. The success of the strategies requires that the processes are good and
implemented techniques go as planned and necessary implementations considered as successful in
the mitigation of challenges in the surgical interventions as needed.
The type of data that are to be collected includes both qualitative and quantitative with
regards to the management of the operations rooms and healthcare in general. Qualitative data will
include the attitude of the surgeons, management styles, and general leadership that determine the
level of organization in the operation rooms. Additionally, the quantitative data that is expected to
be collected include the number of successful surgical procedures under the specific leaderships.
The techniques are considered effective and quality for better management and skilled approaches
to reduce the adversities and promote good policy implementation as needed.
An expected finding from the research and based on the literature review is the positive
impact of quality operation rooms management on the success of surgical operations. The results
are supposed to inform the literature review positively based on the quality implementations to be
considered in the healthcare settings. The literature review is focused on surgical suite and
operation room management in an effective way to mitigate the challenges and promote a god
strategy in the elimination of adversities as needed. A good policy is always good to promote a
good strategy for competence and needed strategy in the identification and reduction of challenges.
A compromised strategy is always a worse situation when it comes to healthcare practice. The
operation rooms are supposed to be positively and effectively managed to assist in the reduction
of challenges and the promotion of good strategies for mitigating the adversities. The results should
be positively implemented based on the originally proposed in the literature review.
The research proposal is good since it provides essential information that can be used to
promote competent and better services in the healthcare setting. Operation rooms are essential and
must always be managed effectively to promote better outcomes and ensure that better strategies
are implemented for the success of the strategies and ideas identified. A good management strategy
is always concerned with strategic applications and approaches geared towards positive and quality
management as needed. The best practices are supposed to be implemented, and surety of effective
approaches applied. The research will be of good use to the healthcare mangers to implement good
practices in assisting the best and quality outcomes for the patients. The results can be used to
improve the condition of the operation rooms and also assist in the high-level organization
whereby the professionals are made to understand the needs of qualitatively and strategically
employing the best practices as required.
You struggled with this assignment compared to your Lit Review and invididual critique. I
feel like you have a high level understanding of the key concepts in this class, but really
strugged with executing them in designing a study that is a randomized controlled trial.
Your sections within the paper lack specificity in any form, and you have pieced together a
lot of very broad statements that collectively don’t make a very smooth and complete
research proposal.
Chernov, M., Pullockaran, J., Vick, A., Leyvi, G., & Delphin, E. (2016). Integrated Practice
Improvement Solutions—Practical Steps to Operating Room Management.
Gupta, D. (2007). Surgical Suites’ Operations Management.
Higgins, V., Bryant, M., Villanueva, E., & Kitto, S. (2011). Managing and avoiding delay in
operating theatres: a qualitative, observational study.
Luo, L., Luo, Y., & Qin, C. (2016). Admission Control Policies for Surgery Patients.
Tanaka, M., Lee, J., Ikai, H., & Imanaka, Y. (2011). Development of efficiency indicators of
operating room management for multi-institutional comparisons.
Wipfli, R., Dubois-Ferrière, v, Budry, s, Hoffmeyer, P., & Lovis, c. (2016). Gesture-Controlled
Image Management for Operating Room: A Randomized Crossover Study to Compare
Interaction Using Gestures, Mouse, and Third Person Relaying.
Wap, W., Tang, C., & Ching, S. (2018). An examination of operation room management at a
Malaysian public hospital.
Part 2 Take Home
Step 1: Read “The Efficacy of moderate-to-vigorous resistance exercise
during pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial.
Step 2: Answer the below questions. HINT: I hope you hit on some of the key
terms from text.
The methodology of any research paper asks us to address the following items:

Study hypothesis
Study population
Sample size and statistical power
Speak on each of the three points above and talk about how the article excelled or failed
at each of them. Don’t just tell me the study hypothesis, population, etc., but instead talk
about the strengths or weaknesses of the 3 points above.
The second component of the framework is assignment, or the selection of study
participants for the study and control group(s). The three basic issues and key questions
are as follows:

Process of assignment
Confounding variables
Speak on each of the three points above and talk about how the article excelled or failed
at each of them. Don’t just tell me the process of assignment, confounding variables,
etc., but instead talk about the strengths or weaknesses of the 3 points above.
This is the measurement of outcomes or end points in the study group and in the control
group. In order to assess the results of an investigation, researchers must define the
outcome or end points they intend to measure. The assessment portion of research is
considered valid when it fulfills these 3 criteria:

Measurement is Appropriate
Measurement is Accurate
Measurement is Precise
Additionally, implementation of measurement or assessment should be:

Unaffected by the process
Speak on each of the points above and talk about how the article excelled or failed at
each of them. Don’t just tell me about the measurement process and completeness, etc.,
but instead talk about the strengths or weaknesses of the points above.
The fourth component of the framework is where we perform statistical calculations on
the raw data collected during the assessment phase. In this component, we address 3 key

Speak on each of the three points above and talk about how the article excelled or failed
at each of them. Don’t just tell me the process of estimation, inference, etc., but instead
talk about the strengths or weaknesses of the 3 points above.
The fifth component asks us to address questions about the meaning of the investigations
results for those who participated in the investigation. The 3 questions/issues that can be
addressed by interpretation are:

Contributory cause of efficacy
Speak on each of the three points above and talk about how the article excelled or failed
at each of them. Don’t just tell me how the study demonstrated efficacy or looks at
harms, etc., but instead talk about the strengths or weaknesses of the 3 points above.
The final component asks what the results of the investigation tell us about individuals
not included in the study and for situations not directly addressed by the study. When
conducting extrapolation, we ask how the investigation applied the results to:

People similar to the average participant in the investigation
Situations that go beyond the range of the study’s data
Populations or settings that differ from those in the investigation
Speak on each of the three points above and talk about how the article excelled or failed
at each of them.
A C TA Obstetricia et Gynecologica
The efficacy of moderate-to-vigorous resistance exercise
during pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial
Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, and 2 Antenatal Care, Primary Health Care,
Gothenburg, Sweden
Key words
Exercise, pregnancy, public health,
randomized controlled trial
Karolina Petrov Fieril, N€
Rehabmottagning, Olskroken, 416 65
Gothenburg, Sweden.
E-mail: karolina.fieril@vgregion.se
Conflict of interest
The authors have stated explicitly that there
are no conflicts of interest in connection with
this article.
Please cite this article as: Petrov Fieril K,
Glantz A, Fagevik Olsen M. The efficacy of
moderate-to-vigorous resistance exercise
during pregnancy: a randomized controlled
trial. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2015; 94:
Received: 14 April 2014
Accepted: 29 September 2014
DOI: 10.1111/aogs.12525
Objectives. To assess the effect and safety of moderate-to-vigorous resistance
exercise during pregnancy. Design. Randomized controlled study. Setting. Two
antenatal clinics in Gothenburg, Sweden. Population. Ninety-two healthy pregnant women. Methods. The intervention was administered during gestational
weeks 14–25. The intervention group received supervised resistance exercise
twice a week, performed at an activity level equivalent to within moderate-tovigorous (n = 51). The control group received generalized exercise recommendation, a home-based training program and a telephone follow up (n = 41).
Main outcome measures. Health-related quality of life, physical strength, pain,
weight, blood pressure, functional status, activity level, and perinatal data.
Results. Functional status deteriorated during the intervention in both groups
and pain increased. Significant differences between the groups were obtained
only for birthweight. Newborns delivered by women who underwent resistance
exercise during pregnancy were significantly heavier than those born to control
women; 3561 (!452) g vs. 3251 (!437) g (p = 0.02), a difference that disappeared when adjustment was made for gestational age (p = 0.059). Both groups
showed normal health-related quality of life, blood pressure, and perinatal data.
Conclusions. These findings indicate that supervised, moderate-to-vigorous
resistance exercise does not jeopardize the health status of healthy pregnant
women or the fetus during pregnancy, but instead appears to be an appropriate
form of exercise in healthy pregnancy.
BP, blood pressure; DRI, disability rating index; GDM,
gestational diabetes mellitus; HRQoL, health-related quality of life; RCT,
randomized controlled trials; SF-36, Short Form-36 Health Survey.
Maintaining a physically active lifestyle is associated with
many benefits, including lower risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, some types of cancer, and
depression (1). Exercise is defined as a planned, structured, and repetitive subset of physical activity that
improves or maintains physical fitness, overall health or
well-being as an intended intermediate or final objective
(2). Pregnant, healthy women are recommended to do
30 min or more of light to moderate exercise a day on
most, if not all, days of the week (3,4). Exercise during
pregnancy is associated with reduced back pain (5),
improved health perception (6), and weight gain control
Key Message
Supervised regular, moderate-to-vigorous resistance
exercise has no adverse effect on childbirth outcome,
pain, or blood pressure. Further investigation into the
use of resistance exercise during pregnancy is needed.
ª 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 94 (2015) 35–42
Resistance exercise during pregnancy
(7). In the literature investigations have reported on the
effect of aerobic exercise when adopted in pregnancy.
Only a few randomized controlled trials (RCT) have,
however, examined the efficacy and safety of resistance
exercise during pregnancy (8–10). One study found resistance exercise performed with an elastic band effective in
improving glycaemic control in women with gestation
diabetes mellitus (GDM) (9). No adverse impact on the
delivery (10), or the newborn has been seen (8). Hence,
in their review Nascimento et al. (11) suggested adding
resistance exercise to the exercise recommendations.
Although the exercise recommendations do not provide
specific guidance for vigorous intensity exercise (3,4), Nascimento et al. (11) suggested that their results supported
the promotion of moderate-to-vigorous prenatal exercise.
Ruchat et al. (12) concluded that a walking program of
vigorous intensity is safe and beneficial to both the
mother and fetus, and also promotes decline in glucose
concentrations among women at risk of GDM (13). In a
prospective study Jukic et al. found an association
between first-trimester vigorous exercise and longer gestation, and reduced risk of preterm births (14). To the best
of our knowledge, no RCT has been conducted that studies prenatal resistance exercise at moderate-to-vigorous
The aim of this study was to evaluate the health effect
and safety of moderate-to-vigorous intensity resistance
exercise when free weights are used by healthy women
during pregnancy, with regard to health-related quality of
life (HRQoL), pain location, physical strength, body
weight gain, blood pressure (BP), functional status, activity level, and childbirth outcomes.
Material and methods
Participants for this study were recruited from February
2006 through November 2006, and from September 2008
through April 2009, all from two antenatal clinics in
Gothenburg, Sweden. Background variables did not significantly differ in between the two study periods. The
participants were verbally informed about the study by
midwives or they received written information available
at the antenatal clinic. Those interested in participating
contacted the research coordinator. The criteria of inclusion were: (i) Pregnancy

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