answer the questions regarding each of the 7 topics in 150 words for each (1050 words total).
USE ONLY OWN WORDS and add references for each topic!
attached are the topics with detailed questions
Plagiarism will not be allowed!
Heartburn or GERD
Hepatic Portal System
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) can infect B lymphocytes. Circulating B lymphocytes can transmit the
infection throughout the lymphatic system. It takes the action of other immune cells to bring
this disease under control – specifically, T cells.
EBV is one of the primary causes of infectious mononucleosis. Explain why this disease can
take months to fight; why it can cause inflammation of the lymph nodes and spleen.
If the inflammation of the spleen causes significant enlargement, why is this a potentially lifethreatening situation that may require removal of the spleen?
Based on the effect of hormones and age on the thymus, explain why people under stress and
senior citizens are more at risk for getting sick.
Take this to another level and discuss why even though seniors may receive yearly flu vaccines,
their immune response (effectiveness of the vaccine) is lower than the general population and
why the length of the vaccination coverage is shorter for them.
Why is it important for anyone interacting with seniors to receive yearly vaccines?
3. Cystic Fibrosis
• Chronic obstructive disorder
• Autosomal recessive
• Defective Cl- channel proteins
• Chloride is retained in the bronchi epithelial
• Increased Cl- results in increased Na+ intake
What do you expect will occur with water movement?
Will mucus lining the respiratory tract become more or less viscus?
How will these activities affect airflow and general tissue health?
• a complete or partial collapse of a lung
• can occur from injury, blockage, fluid, lung weakness, or surgery
Premature newborns are at high risk for infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome.
• By 7th month sufficient alveolar sacs exist for survival
• Surfactant cells develop in the 6th month, secreting small amounts of the phospholipid
into the lung fluid
• Secretion increases in last two weeks
• At birth, fluid is rapidly absorbed, phospholipid is left behind to line alveoli
All of the cases depicted are at risk for atelectasis, explain why.
In emphysema, irritation results in macrophage hyperactivity. Normally, macrophages
secretions are kept in balance through the circulation of the liver protein, a anti-trypsin.
If the protease activity of the macrophages increases beyond the ability of the a anti-trypsin,
then the elastin and support tissue of the alveoli will be broken down.
Alveoli expand but do not recoil. Discuss how this would affect the respiratory volumes and
A major measurement of lung function involves FEV1. This is the amount of the vital capacity
that an individual can forcibly expel in the first second of a 6 second test.
If a man expels 1.5 liters for the FEV1 and a normal expected amount is 3 liters, what does
6. Heartburn or GERD
GERD – gastroesophageal reflex disease – occurs when acid from the stomach enters the
Hypothesize why the following situations could increase the risk of GERD:
• Hiatal hernia
• Drinking coffee or caffeinated beverages
• Eating heavy meals
Decreasing the acid output of the stomach will relieve GERD symptoms but what side effects
7. Hepatic Portal System
• Review the portal vessels from your lab notes.
• Based on their function, explain why liver diseases could result in portal hypertension.
• A major complication of portal hypertension is varices and bleeding. Why would portal
hypertension cause varices?
• Shunting the splenic portal vein to the kidney relieves some hypertension. What
nutrient concerns would have to be addressed?